Now, Aristagores, after he had caused Ionia to stand apart, thus met his end and Histiaeus, Miletus’ tyrant, let go off by Darius, was present at Sardis. Then him, come from Susa, Artaphrenes, the subordinate ruler of Sardis, asked in accordance with what kind of a reason he thought the Ionians were standing apart, and he both asserted he knew not and was wondering at what had been done on the ground that forsooth he had knowledge of none of the present matters. So Artaphrenes, seeing that he was using art, said, since he knew the exact truth of the standing apart, “Thus for you, Histiaeus, it is concerning those matters: that shoe you sewed and Aristagores shod himself”.
Artaphrenes said that that pertained to the standing apart and Histiaeus in fear on the ground that Artaphrenes was comprehending under cover of the first night that had come out ran away toward the sea and had deceived utterly King Darius, he who had promised he would work the downfall of Sardo, the largest island, and was slipping in under the leadership of the Ionians’ war against Darius. Then having stepped across to Chios he was bound by the Chians, since he was wrongly supposed by them of doing newer acts against them at Darius’ bidding. However, the Chians, having learned the whole account, that he was hostile to the king, released him. Right thereupon when Histiaeus was being asked by the Ionians in accordance with what so eagerly he had enjoined on Aristagores to stand himself apart from the king and had worked out so great an evil against the Ionians, what had come to be the cause for them he was bringing out to light not at all, but he was saying to them that King Darius had taken counsel to make the Phoenicians to stand up and out and settle down in Ionia and the Ionians in Phoenicia and because of that he had given the injunction. Although not even in any way at all absolutely had the king taken that counsel, he was trying to scare the Ionians.
Then afterwards Histiaeus was dealing through a messenger, Hermippus, an Atarnian man, and to those of the Persians who were in Sardis was sending papers on the ground that they had previously conversed to him about standing apart. But Hermippus to whom he had been sent away gave them not and he was carrying and put the papers in the hand of Artaphrenes. Then he, having learned all that was being done, bade Hermippus carry and give what was from Histiaeus to very ones for whom he was carryng them and the things in answer that were being sent back from the Persians give to Hermippus himself. And when those had become manifest, thereupon Artaphrenes killed many of the Persians.
Round Sardis indeed there came to be a disturbance and Histiaeus, tripped up in that hope, the Chians led down to Miletus at the requesting of Histiaeus himself. But the Milesians, gladly having gotten free from Aristagores in fact, in no way were eager to receive another tyrant into their country, seeing that they had tasted of freedom. And indeed, because, when it was night, with violence Histiaeus was trying to go down into Miletus, he was wounded in his thigh by one of the Milesians. He indeed, when he had come to be thrust away from his own land, came back to Chios and thence, because he could not so persuade the Chians as to give him ships, he stepped across to Mytilene and persuaded the Lesbians to give him ships. Then they filled eight triremes and set sail together with Histiaeus to Byzantium and sitting there, they were taking those of the ships that were sailing out of the Pontus except all of them that asserted they were ready to obey Histiaeus.
Now, Histiaeus and the Mytilenians were doing that, and against Miletus itself a large army of ship and foot was expected; for the generals of the Persians, having joined together and made one camp, were driving against Miletus, because they considered worthless all the other boroughs. And of the navy the Phoenicians were the most eager and there joined in advancing with an army also the newly subjected Cyprians as well as the Cilicians and the Egyptians.
They indeed were advancing with an army against Miletus and the rest of Ionia, and the Ionians were learning that by inquiry and sending delegates of themselves to the Panionium. Then to them, when they had come to that place and were taking council, it seemed good that no foot army they should collect in opposition to the Persians, but the Milesians themselves should guard their walls and they should fill the fleet and leave behind none of the ships and, after they had performed the filling, should be collected the quickest way at Lade to fight a naval battle for Miletus. Now, Lade is a small island that lies off the city of the Milesians.
Then after that with their ships, when they had been filled, the Ionians were present and with them also they of the Aeolians who inhabit Lesbos. And they were stationed this way: the Milesians themselves had the wing toward the east and were furnishing from themselves eighty ships. Then next to those were the Prienians with twelve ships and the Myesians with three ships. Then to the Myesians the Teians were next with seventeen ships and to the Teians next were the Chians with a hundred ships. Then near to those were stationed the Erythrians and the Phocaeans and the Erythrians were furnishing from themselves eight ships and the Phocaeans three. Then next to the Phocaeans were the Lesbians with seventy ships. And last were stationed and had the wing toward the west the Samians with sixty ships. So of all those the whole number together came to be three hundred fifty three triremes.
Those then were the Ionians’ and the barbarians’ multitude of ships were six hundred. When both those had come to Milesian land and their foot army was present, thereupon the Persians’ generals, having learned by inquiry the multitude of the Ionian ships, dreaded utterly that they should prove not capable of overcoming and thus they should both not be able to take Miletus completely, if they were not masters of the sea, and from Darius run the risk of receiving some evil. Considering that, they, after they had collected the Ionians’ tyrants, who, having been deposed by Aristagores the Milesian from their rules, were fleeing to the Medes and in fact then were joining in advancing with the army against Miletus, called together those of those men who were present and were saying to them this: “Ionian men, let everyone of you now manifestly treat well the king’s house; I mean, let each of you try to separate his own fellow-citizens from the remaining allied force. Put forward for yourselves and announce out for yourselves this, that they will suffer nothing unagreeable on account of their standing apart and for them neither their shrines nor their private property will be burnt down and they will have nothing more violent than they had previously, but if they will not do that and they in any case will go through battle, by now this very saying say to them and use as an abusive threat that will hold them down, that worsted in the battle, they will be led into captivity and that their sons we will cause to be castrated ones and their maidens drawn up to Bactra and that we will hand over their country to others”.
They indeed said that and the Ionians’ tyrants sent in different ways by night, as each to his own was having announcements made out. Then the Ionians, to whom in fact those announcements had come, were thoroughly making use of wilfulness and would not agree to the betrayal and each thought that to themselves alone the Persians had that announced out. Now, that immediately after the Persians had come to Miletus was happening.
Then, when the Ionians had been gathered together at Lade, assemblies were being made and indeed I suppose not only others were speaking to them, but also moreover indeed the Phocaean general Dionysus with these words: “Because on a razor’s edge are our affairs held, Ionian men, whether to be free or slaves, and at that like runaways, then now if we want to submit to hardships, forthwith toil will be yours, but you will be able to overcome for yourselves your opponents and be free, whereas if you will make thorough use of softness and lack of order, I have no hope for you of not paying the penalty to the king for your standing apart. Well, me obey and to me yourselves entrust, and to you I, if the gods apportion what’s fair, promise that either our enemies will not join battle or, if they join battle, they will be greatly worsted”.
Having heard that, the Ionians entrusted themselves to Dionysus, and he, after he was leading up on each occasion in a wing the ships, that he might use the oarsmen in executing a sailing through each other and out with their ships and arm the marines, the remaining part of the day was keeping the ships at anchor and furnishing for the Ionians toil throughout the day. Now, up to seven days they were obeying and doing what was bade, but the one after those the Ionians, inasmuch as they were without experience of toils like those and worn out by hardships and sun, said to themselves this: “Whom of divinities did we walk contrary to and fulfill this, who, having gone contrary to your senses and sailed out of your mind, to a Phocaean, a boastful one, who is furnishing from himself three ships, have entrusted ourselves and keep so? He then, having taken us over, maltreats us with incurable maltreatments and indeed many of us have fallen into illnesses and many are likely to suffer that same thing; in short, before those evils for us at least it is better in fact to suffer whatsoever else and the slavery that is to be to endure whatever it will be rather than be held together in the one that is present. Come, the remaining time let us not obey him”. That they said and after that immediately to obey no one was willing, but like a host they, having pitched themselves tents on the island, were staying in the shade and refused to step into their ships and do their exercises.
Then the generals of the Samians learned that was being done by the Ionians and thereupon indeed from Aeaces, the son of Syloson, that which Aeaces previously was sending as accounts at the Persians’ bidding by way of asking them to abandon their alliance with the Ionians, they, the Samians, hence at once, seeing that the lack of order was great from the Ionians’ side, were receiving as the accounts and it was clear to them it was impossible to overthrow the king’s affairs, since they at any rate knew well that, even if they overthrew the fleet that was present, another would be present for them five times as large. Hence having taking hold on a pretext, as soon they had seen the Ionians refusing to be useful, they considered in profit’s place to preserve their own shrines and private property. Now, Aeaces, from whom they received the accounts, was the son of Syloson, the son of Aeaces, and, being the tyrant of Samos, by the Milesian Aristagores was deprived of his rule just according as all the other tyrants of Ionia.
Hence then when the Phoenicians were sailing in opposition, the Ionians, even themselves, were leading up their ships in wings. And when they both came to be near and joined battle with each other, thereafter I am not able exactly to write up who of the Ionians proved good men or bad in that naval battle; for they were blaming each other. But the Samians are said thereupon in accordance with what had been agreed with Aeaces to have raised for themselves their sails and sailed away from their post to Samos except eleven ships. And of those the trireme rulers remained and were fighting a naval battle, because they disobeyed their generals, and to them the commonwealth of the Samians granted on account of that deed on a pillar to be written up with their fathers’ names on the ground that they had proven good men and that pillar is in the public square. But the Lesbians too, having seen for themselves their neighbours were fleeing, did the same as the Samians, and thus also the greater number of the Ionians did that same thing.
And of those that remained in the naval battle the Chians were treated most harshly on the ground that they were showing forth for themselves brilliant deeds and not fighting badly on purpose, who were furnishing from themselves, just as also was previously said, a hundred ships and on each of them forty picked men among their townsmen who were marines. And seeing the greater number of the allies were playing the traitor, they thought not just to prove similar to the bad among them, but left alone with few allies, they performed a sailing through and out and were fighting a naval battle, until they took numerous ships of their enemies and lost the majority of their own. The Chians indeed with those left of their ships fled away to their own land.
But all those of the Chians whose ships were powerless through the agency of damages then, when they were being pursued, took refuge at Mycale. Ships indeed right there they beached and left behind and they on foot were conveyed through the mainland. So when the Chians had thrown into Ephesia in their being conveyed, because at night they had come to it and since there were for the women at that very spot the Thesmophoria, thereupon the Ephesians, as they both had not heard before how it was concerning the Chians and saw an army had been thrown into their country, having certainly come to the belief that they were thieves and were going for their women, they were coming out to the rescue with the whole people and killing the Chians. Now, those fell on fortunes like that.
But Dionysus the Phocaean, when he had learned the Ionians’ affairs had been destroyed, he took three ships of the enemies and was sailing away to Phocaea no longer, since he knew well that he would be led into captivity together with the rest of Ionia. Then he immediately, as he was, was sailing to Phoenicia and there having caused merchant vessels to sink down and taken much money, he was sailing to Sicily and, making his base thence, as a pirate he was established of none of the Greeks, but of the Carchedonians and the Tyrsenians.
Then the Persians, when in the naval battle they were prevailing over the Ionians, were besieging Miletus by land and sea by digging under the walls and applying machines of all kinds and took it down to the citadel the sixth year after the standing apart of Aristagores. And they led into captivity the city so as for the suffering to coincide with the oracle that had come about with regard to Miletus.
For for the Argives, when they were consulting the oracle in Delphi about their own city’s salvation, a common oracle was given as an oracle, that which referred to the Argives and the addition that she gave as an oracle to the Milesians. Now, that which related to the Argives, whenever I come to be at that point in my account, then I mention and what she gave as an oracle to the Milesians, when they were not present, is this way:
And then indeed, Miletus, bad works’ deviser,
To many feast and bright gifts you will come to be
And your bedmates wash feet of many long-haired men
And our temple at Didyma’s care be others’.
Then indeed that befell the Milesians, when indeed the majority of men were being killed by the Persian who were long-haired men, the women and offspring came to be in the counting of captives and the shrine in Didyma, the temple and the oracle, was plundered and burnt down. And of the money in that shrine often mention elsewhere in my account I made.
Thereafter those of the Milesians who taken alive were led to Susa and King Darius did them no other evil and settled them down by the so-called Red sea, in the city of Ampe, alongside which the Tigris river flows and disembogues into the sea. And of the Milesians’ country the Persians themselves had the parts round the city and the plain, and the heights over they gave to the Pedasian Carians to possess.
Then to the Milesians, when they had suffered that at the Persians’ hands, the Sybaritians did not pay back the like, who were settled in Laus and Scidrus, because they had been deprived of their city—for, Sybaris having been captured by the Crotonians, all Milesians from the youth upwards shaved for themselves their heads and added for themselves great sorrow; for those cities quite most of those that we know were foreign friends to each other. Nothing similarly as the Athenians; for the Athenians made clear their excessive grieving at Miletus’ capture in all the many other ways and, in particular, when Phrynichus had composed as a drama Miletus’ capture and produced it, the theatre fell to tears and they fined him, on the ground that he had called to memory their own evils, a thousand drachmas and commanded no one any longer to make use of that drama.
Now, Miletus of Milesians was made empty, and to those of the Samians who had anything what had been done with regard to the Medes by their own generals in no way was pleasing and it seemed good after the naval battle immediately, when they were taking counsel for themselves, before for them the tyrant Aeaces came to their country, to sail off for colonization and not remain and be the Medes and Aeaces’ slaves. For the Zanclians who from Sicily during that same time were sending messengers to Ionia were calling the Ionians to the shore of Cale, because they wanted on the very spot to found a city of Ionians. And that so-called shore of Cale is the Sicilians and turned toward Tyrsenia in Sicily. Therefore, those being called for, the Samians were the only ones of the Ionians to be dispatched and together with them were those of the Milesians who had fled away.
It’s that matter in which indeed something like this happened to come about: the Samians in being conveyed to Sicily came to be among the Epizephyrian Locrians, and the Zanclians themselves and their king, whose name was Scythes, were sitting down round a city of the Sicilians, because they wanted to completely take it. Then having learned of that, Rhegium’s tyrant, Anaxileus, as he was then differing with the Zanclians, joined with the Samians and convinced them that they should let the shore of Cale, to which they were sailing, be and take hold of Zancle, because it was empty of men. So, the Samians obeying and having taken hold of Zancle, thereupon the Zanclians, when they had learned by inquiry that their city was being held, came to its rescue and were calling for Hippocrates, Gele’s tyrant; for indeed that one was their ally. But when of them in fact Hippocrates with his host was present in coming to the rescue, Scythes, the monarch of the Zanclians, on the ground that he had lost the city, Hippocrates fettered as well as his brother, Pythogenes, and sent them to the city of Inyx. Then the Zanclians left, after he had conferred with the Samians and given and received oaths, he betrayed. And this was the wage for him stated by the Samians, that Hippocrates should take as his share half of all the movables and the captives in the city and should obtain as his lot all the things in the fields. The majority of the Zanclians he himself held in the accounting of captives, after he had performed a binding, and the three hundred chiefs among them he gave to the Samians to completely kill by cutting their throats. However the Samians at any rate did not do that.
Then Scythes, the monarch of the Zanclians, from Inyx ran away to Himere and from that land he was present in Asia and went up to King Darius. And him Darius considered to be the most just of all men who from Greece to him had gone up; for in fact, after he had begged to the king, he came to Sicily and again from Sicily back to the king, until by old age when he was greatly blessed he met his end among the Persians. So the Samians, having gotten rid of the Medes, without trouble put round themselves a most beautiful city, Zancle.
So after the naval battle that had come about off Miletus the Phoenicians at the Persians’ bidding led to Samos Aeaces, Syloson’s son, on the ground that he had proven worth much and worked out great deeds, and in the case of the Samians alone of those who had stood apart from Darius on account of the leaving behind of their ships in the naval battle neither their city nor their shrines were burnt down. And, Miletus captured, immediately the Phoenicians got hold of Caria too; some of its cities with their having bowed down voluntarily, and some by force they brought over for themselves.
That indeed thus happened and to Histiaeus the Milesian, while he was round Byzantium and was seizing the Ionians’ trading vessels, when they were sailing out of the Pontus, was announced out what had happened round Miletus. The matters that were concerned with the Hellespont indeed he entrusted to Bisaltes, Apollophanes’ son, an Abydenian, and he himself with the Lesbians was sailing to Chios and with a guard of Chians, when it would not let him go forward, he joined battle in the so-called Hollows of the Chian country. Of them indeed he killed numerous and over the Chians left, seeing that indeed they were in a bad state in consequence of the naval battle, Histiaeus with the Lesbians gained mastery and he was making his base of operations at Polichne of the Chians.
Now, there is a love somehow of giving indications beforehand, whenever great evils are for either a city or a nation to be; for in fact for the Chians before that great indications were made. On the one hand, to them, when they had sent to Delphi a chorus of a hundred youths, only two of those returned back, and ninety eight of them a plague overtook and carried off and, on the other, in the city during the same time, a little before the naval battle, on children, when they were being taught letters, the roof fell so that of a hundred and twenty children one alone fled away. Those indications to them the god showed beforehand and after that the naval battle overtook and to its knee threw the city and on top of the naval battle supervened Histiaeus and he was leading the Lesbians. Then, the Chians being in a bad state, a subjection of them easily he performed.
So thence Histiaeus advanced with an army against Thasos and he was leading numerous of the Ionians and Aeolians and to him, while he was sitting down round Thasos, came a message that the Phoenicians were sailing up from Miletus against the rest of Ionia. Then having learned that by inquiry, he left Thasos unsacked and he himself to Lesbos hastened and was leading his whole host. Then from Lesbos, since his host was hungering, he made steps through across, with the intention that from Atarneus he would reap the grain thence and that of the Mysians from the Caicus plain. But in those spots in fact was Harpagus, a Persian man, general of no small host, who, having joined battle with him as he stepped out, took hold of Histiaeus himself with a taking alive and was destroying the majority of his army.
Now, Histiaeus was captured alive this way: when the Greeks were fighting with the Persians in Malene in the Atarnian country, they were come to grips for a long time and their horse later set off and fell on the Greeks. The work of the horse indeed proved that and, the Greeks routed, Histiaeus, expecting that he would not perish at the king’s hands on account of his present error, he took up for himself a love of soul like this: when in fleeing he was overtaken by a Persian man and when in being overgotten by him he was to be stabbed at once, uttering the Persian tongue, he disclosed himself completely, that he was Histiaeus the Milesian.
Now, if, when he had been taken alive, he had been brought in his being brought to King Darius, then both he would have suffered no evil, as far as it seems to me, and the other would have let his fault go by, but as it was, him because of those very previous acts and that, having made a complete escape, he might not again become great at the king’s court, Artaphrenes, the subordinate ruler of Sardis, and Harpagus who had performed the capture, when he had come in his being brought to Sardis, his body right there they impaled and his head, after they had performed a mummification, they carried away to King Darius into Susa. Then Darius, having learned that by inquiry and blamed those who had done that, because they had brought him up not living into the sight of him, once they had washed the head of Histiaeus and dressed it well, he enjoined to perform a burial as of a man greatly to himself and the Persians a benefactor. The matters concerning Histiaeus were thus.
And the nautical army of the Persians, having wintered round Miletus, the next year, when it had sailed up, took easily the islands that lay off the mainland, Chios, Lesbos and Tenedos, and whenever it took hold of any of the islands, taking each in its own way, the barbarians were netting the human beings. And they were performing the netting in this manner: man on man’s hand having laid hold from the northern sea to the southern, they stretch out and thereafter through the whole island they go in hunting out the human beings. Moreover, they were taking also the Ionian cities on the mainland after the same fashion except they were not netting the human beings; for it was not possible.
Thereupon the Persians’ generals falsified not the threats that they had threatened in reference to the Ionians, when they were encamping opposite themselves. For when indeed they had gotten mastery over the cities, on selecting out for themselves the most good-looking children, they were performing castrations and making them, instead of with testicles, eunuchs, and the maidens who were most beautiful drawn up to the king. That indeed they they were doing and the cities they were burning down with their shrines and all. Thus indeed the third time Ionians were mades slave utterly, first by the Lydians and twice in a row by the Persians.
Then from Ionia the nautical army was departing and all the parts on the left of the Hellespont for one who sails in was taking. For the parts on the right under the hand of the Persians themselves had become on the mainland. And there are in Europe these lands of the Hellespont, the Chersonese, in which are numerous cities, Perinthus, the walls on the coast of Thrace, Selymbrie and Byzantium. Now, the Byzantines and the Calchedonians from beyond did not even await the Persians’ sailing in opposition, but left behind their own land and were gone within, into the Euxine sea, and there settled in the city of Mesambrie. Then the Persians, having burnt those countries recounted down, turned themselves against Proconnesus and Artace and, having apportioned to fire those lands too, they were sailing back to the Chersonese to completely take all those of the cities left out that they had previously touched at and not pulled down. But against Cyzicus they did not even sail to begin with: for the Cyzicians before the Phoenicians’ sailing in had come to be under the king, after they had come to an agreement with Oebares, Megabazus’ son, the subordinate ruler in Dascyleum. Of the Chersonese then, except the city of Cardia, all the other cities the Phoenicians worsted.
Now, tyrant of them until then was Miltiades, Cimon’s son, Stesagores’ son, as Miltiades, Cypselus’ son, had acquired that rule previously in a manner like this: the Thracian Doloncians had that Cheronese, Hence those Doloncians, oppressed in war by the Apsinthians, sent to Delphi their kings to consult the oracle about the war. Then Pythia answered them that as founder should be brought to their country that one who them, when they had gone out of the shrine, was the first to call to a friendly meal. So the Doloncians, going the sacred way, through the Phocaeans and the Boeotians went and, when no one was calling them, they turned aside toward Athens.
Now, in Athens at that time Peisistratus had all the might, but Miltiades, Cypselus’ son, too was a dynast at least, who was of a house that maintained a team of four horses, in origin one descended from Aeacus and Aegina and in more recent eras an Athenian, since Philaeus, Ajax’ son, had been the first of that house born an Athenian. That Miltiades, sitting down on his porch, when he was seeing the Doloncians were going by with clothing not of the country and spears, he called them to himself and to them, when they had gone forward, he announced out shelter and a friendly meal. Then they, having accepted and been given a friendly meal by him, were bringing out to light the whole prophecy for him and, after they had brought it to light, they requested of him that he should obey the god. So, Miltiades, when he had heard, forthwith the account persuaded, inasmuch as he was vexed by Peisistratus’ rule and wanted to be out of the way. Then immediately he was dispatched to Delphi to ask besides the oracle whether he should do the very deeds that the Doloncians were requesting before him.
So, the Pythia too bidding, thus indeed Miltiades, Cypselus’ son, having gained victory at the Olympic games before that with a team of four horses, then, having taken over among the Athenians everyone who wanted to have a share of the expedition, was sailing together with the Doloncians and got hold of the country. And him those who had brought in established for themselves as a tyrant. Then he first walled off the isthmus of the Chersonese from Cardia to Pactye, that the Aspinthians might not be able to harm them by throwing in to the country. And those stades of the isthmus are thirty six and from that isthmus the Chersonese inwards in its entirety is of four hundred and twenty stades in its length.
Hence, Miltiades, having walled off the neck of the Chersonese and having had the Aspinthians thrust away in a manner like that, of those left first he waged war with the Lampsacenians, and him the Lampsacenians ambushed and took with a capturing alive. Now, Miltiades was for Croesus the Lydian one who had come to be in mind; hence having learned of that by inquiry, Croesus was sending and publicly saying to the Lampsacenians that they should let Miltiades go out and, if not, of them in a pine’s manner he was threatening a wiping out. So, the Lampsacenians wandering in their accounts of what the saying desired to say, which to them Creosus had spoken as a threat, “in a pine’s manner a wiping out”, with difficulty at last one of the elders, having learned, said what was, that only a pine among all trees, when it has been cut down, lets no shoot go out, but completely destroyed perishes away. Hence in fear of Croesus, the Lampsacenians released and let Miltiades go out.
That one indeed on account of Croesus fled out and afterwards met his end childless, after he had given over his rule and his money to Stesagore, Cimon his brother of the same mother’s son. And to him, after he had met his end, the Chersonesians sacrificed as is the law for a founder and they set up a contest of horse and gymnasts, in which to none of the Lampsacenians it is allowed to compete. And, there being war against the Lampsacenians, also Stesagores it befell to die childless, after he had been struck on his head with an axe in the town-hall by a man, a deserter by his account but an enemy and one somewhat more heated by his deed.