Soclees, being an ambassador from Corinth, said this, and Hippies answered him, after he had called on the same gods as that one, that yea verily the Corinthians most of all would yearn after the sons of Peisistratus, whenever for them came the appointed days to be distressed by the Athenians. Hippies replied with that, inasmuch as he completely knew most exactly of men the oracles, but those of the allies left to that time kept themselves in a state of silence and, when they had heard Soclees’ having spoken freely, quite every one of them, after having burst into speech, was choosing the Corinthian’s opinion and making entreaty to the Lacedemonians not to do anything newer concerning a Greek city.
Thus that was stopped and to Hippies, when he was being driven away thence, Amyntes the Macedonian was offering Anthemous, and the Thessalians were offering Iolcus, but he was choosing neither and returned back to Sigeium that Peisistratus had taken by spear from the Mytilenians; then having gained mastery over it, he established to be tyrant his own bastard son, Hegesistratus, who without a fight had what he had taken over from Peisistratus. For there were waging war by setting off from the city of Achilleium and Sigeium for a long time the Mytilenians and the Athenians, as the former were asking back their country and the Athenians both refused to give way and showed forth by speech there was no share more of the Aeolians in the country of Ilium than of both themselves and all the others of the Greeks who had joined Menelaus in avenging Helen’s acts of seizure.
So while they were waging war other events of all kinds happened in the battles and moreover indeed also Alcaeus the poet, after an engagement had occurred and the Athenians were winning, himself in fleeing fled off and his arms the Athenians seized and hung them up in the temple of Athena in Sigeium. Then that Alcaeus in a lyric poem made a composition of and dispatched to Mytilene as he announced out for himself his own suffering to Melanippus, a man, a companion. Now, the Mytilenians and the Athenians Periander, son of Cypselus, reconciled; for to that one as arbitrator they appealed for themselves. And he made the reconciliation this way: each side should inhabit the land that they occupied.
Now, Sigeium thus came to be under the Athenians. And Hippies, when he had come from Lacedemon to Asia, was setting every matter in motion by slandering the Athenians to Artaphrenes and doing quite all that Athens might come to be under himself and Darius. Hippies indeed did that and the Athenians, having learned of that by inquiry, sent to Sardis messengers and refused to allow the Persians to obey the Athenians’ exiles. Then Artaphrenes bade them, if they wanted to be safe and sound, receive back again Hippies. Hence indeed the Athenians refused to consent to the speeches, when they were being brought away, and to them, because they were refusing to consent, it seemed good in the open to be the Persians’ enemies.
So to them, who believed that and were fallen out with the Persians, at just that time the Milesian Aristagores, driven out by Cleomenes the Lacedemonian from Sparta, came to Athens; for that city of those left was the most powerful. Then having gone before the people, Aristagores said the same that he had also in Sparta about the goods in Asia and the Persian war, that neither shield nor lance they had customarily and easy to be worsted they were. That indeed he said and in addition to that this, that the Milesians were the Athenians’ colonists and it was reasonable for them to perform a rescue, because they had great power. And there was nothing that he did not promise inasmuch as he was in need very much, until he convinced them. For it seems to be easier to deceive many than one, if he proved not able to deceive Cleomenes the Lacedemonian, but to three myriads of Athenians he did that. The Athenians indeed, convinced, voted to dispatch off twenty ships as succours for the Ionians and appointed to be general of them Melanthius, who was a man among the townsmen esteemed in all the respects. And those ships proved the beginning of evils for the Greeks and the barbarians.
Then Aristagores, having sailed before and come to Miletus, found out a plan, from which for the Ionians no advantage was to be (and accordingly he was not even acting for that purpose, but that he might pain King Darius), and sent to Phrygia a man to the Paeonians from the Strymon river who had become taken by the spear by Megabazus and were settled in a place in Phrygia and in a village by themselves, him who, when he had come to the Peaonians, said this: “Paeonian men, Aristagores, the tyrant of Miletus, sent me to suggest a means of salvation to you, if in fact you want to obey. For now all Ionia stands apart from the king and it is possible for you to be brought to safety to your own land; up to the sea for yourselves and from there on for us by now it will be a care”. So having heard that, the Paeonians considered it very desirable and having taken up children and wives, they ran away to the sea, while some others of them in fact remained in fear there. And when the Paeonians had come to the sea, thereafter they stepped across to Chios. Then, when they were by then in Chios, at their feet had gone many a horse of the Persians in pursuit of the Paeonians and, when they had not overtaken them, they announced out to Chios to the Paeonians that they should go away back, but the Paeonians refused to consent to the speeches and from Chios the Chians led them to Lesbos and the Lesbians conveyed them to Doriscus. Then thence on land they were conveyed and came to Paeonia.
Now, as for Aristagores, when the Athenians had come with twenty ships and at the same time were taking with them five triremes of Eretrians, who not for the sake of the Athenians were advancing with the army but for the sake of the Milesians themselves, because they were paying back what was owed to them (for the Milesians indeed previously helped the Eretrians to bear to the end the war against the Chalcidians, when in fact of the Chalcidians indeed against the Eretrians and the Milesians the Samians came to the rescue), when those then had come with them and all the other allies were present, he, Aristagores, carried out an expedition against Sardis. He himself did not advance with the army, but remained in Miletus and appointed others to be generals of the Milesians, his brother, Charopinus, and among all the other townsmen Hermophantus.
Then having come with that expedition into Ephesus, the Ionians left boats behind in Coresus in the Ephesian land and they themselves went inland with a large band with the taking of Ephesians as guides. So making their way alongside the river Caustrius, thereafter when they had come and stepped over the Tmolus, they took Sardis, no one having opposed them, and took everything else except the acropolis, but the acropolis Artaphrenes himself was guarding with no small force of men.
So from plundering after they had taken the city this restrained them: there were in Sardis more houses of reed and all of them that were also of brick had roofs of reed. When one of the soldiers had set on fire one of those, immediately from house to house the fire went and overspread the whole town. Then, the town burning, the Lydians and all of the Persians that were in the city, caught from all sides, seeing that the fire was grazing on the edges and they had no means of going out from the town, flowed together into the public square and to the Pactolus river that in carrying down gold-dust for them from Tmolus through the middle of the public square flows and thereafter disembogues into the Hermus river; then it does into the sea. It’s to that Pactolus (and into the public square), to which the Lydians and the Persians were collected and were compelled to defend themselves. Then the Ionians, seeing that some of their enemies were defending themselves and some with a large multitude were moving forward, retreated away in fear to the mountain called Tmolus and thence under cover of night departed to their ships.
And Sardis was burnt down and in it also a shrine of a native god, Cybebe, using which as a pretext the Persians later burnt in revenge the shrines among the Greeks. But then the Persians who had districts on this side of the Halys river, because they were learning beforehand of that by inquiry, were gathered together and came to the rescue of the Lydians. And somehow in Sardis the Ionians were no longer they found and by following in accordance with a track they took them in Ephesus. And the Ionians were arrayed in opposition and they gave battle and were worsted greatly. In fact many of them the Persians killed, others of name and moreover also Eualcides who was general of the Eretrians and had won contests with crowns as prizes and been praised many times by Simonides the Ceian. Then they who among them had fled from the battle were scattered throughout the cities.
Then indeed thus they competed and afterwards the Athenians, entirely having left behind the Ionians, Aristagores calling on them many times through messengers, asserted that they would not succour them. So the Ionians, deprived of the alliance of the Athenians, because thus to them belonged what had been done against Darius, indeed nonetheless were planning their war against the king. And having sailed to the Hellespont, they brought under themselves Byzantium and all the rest of the cities there and having sailed away out of the Hellespont, they acquired in addition the greater part of Carie to be their ally; for in fact as regards Caunus, although previously it had not wanted to be an ally, when they had burnt down Sardis, then to them even that land was added.
The Cyprians too willingly all were added to them except the Amathousians; for those too stood apart from the Medes this way: there was a Onesilus, Gorgus the king of the Salaminians’ younger brother and son of Chersis, son of Siromus, son of Euelthon. That man often and previously was urging Gorgus to stand apart from the king and then, when he had learned by inquiry that the Ionians too were standing apart, he absolutely was zealous and trying to induce him. But when he could not persuade Gorgus, thereupon Onesilus awaited his having gone out of the town of the Salaminians together with the men of his faction and shut him out of the gates. Gorgus indeed, deprived of his city, fled to the Medes, and Onesilus was ruler of Salamis and tried to convince all Cyprians to join in standing apart. All the others he convinced, but the Amathousians, because they wanted not to obey him, he beseiged by sitting down before them.
Now, Onesilus was beseiging Amathous and when to King Darius it had been announced out that Sardis had been taken and burnt down by the Athenians and the Ionians and that there had become the leader of the gathering so as for that to be woven together the Milesian Aristagores, first it is said that he, when he had learned that by inquiry, considered of no account the Ionians, because he knew well that those at any rate would not go unpunished for having stood apart, and asked who the Athenians were; then afterwards, when he had learned by inquiry, he demanded his bow and, when he had taken hold of and placed in an arrow, he let it fly up to the sky and, as he hurled it into the lower air, he said, “O Zeus, let it be allowed me to punish the Athenians”, and, when he had said that, he assigned to one of his servants on each occasion, when dinner was put forth for him, at three times to say, “Master, remember the Athenians”.
And having assigned that, he said, after he had called into sight Histiaeus the Milesian, whom Darius was detaining a long time by then, “I have learned by inquiry, Histiaeus, that your guardian, to whom you had entrusted Miletus, has performed newer deeds against me; for having led men against me from the other mainland and Ionians with them, who will pay me a penalty for what they have done, he convinced those to follow together with those men of his and has deprived me of Sardis. How then to you does that now appear to be beautiful? And how without your plans was something like that done? See to it that at a later time you should not hold yourself in blame”. Thereupon Histiaeus said, “King, what kind of word have you given utterance to, that I have planned a deed from which for you something painful, either great or small, was to result? And I would do that because I lack what and am in need of what, for whom is on hand all the very things that are for you and who all plans from you am thought worthy to overhear? Well, if at any rate anything like that that you have spoken of my guardian does, know that he, having thrown matters on himself, has acted. And, to begin with, I for my part do not believe the speech, how the Milesians and my guardian are doing something newer concerning your affairs, but if after all anything like that they are doing and you have heard what is, o king, learn the kind of deed that you have worked out by having caused me to be drawn up away from the sea. For the Ionians seem, after I had come to be away from their eyes, to have done what they had long been having a desire to, but had I been in Ionia not even one city would have moved a little. Therefore now like speed let me go away to make my way to Ionia that for you I may adjust all that to the same state and hand over that guardian of Miletus, who has contrived that, placed in the hand. Then having done that in accordance with your mind I swear by the royal gods that verily I will not slip off the tunic, with which I will step down into Ionia, until to you I should make Sardo, the largest island, tributary”.
Histiaeus indeed in saying that was trying to deceive and Darius was persuaded and let him go away, after he had enjoined that, whenever he rendered brought to completion what he had promised to him, he should come to be with him back at Susa.
So in all that time, in which the message about Sardis went up to the king and Darius, having performed the deeds concerning the bow, had come in speeches with Histiaeus and Histiaeus, released by Darius, was conveyed to the sea, this happened: to Salaminian Onesilus, while he was beseiging the Amathousians, it was announced out that leading a large Persian host by ships, Artybius, a Persian man, was expected to come to Cyprus. So having learned that by inquiry, Onesilus sent heralds in different ways into Ionia and called for them. Then the Ionians, having taken counsel for no long time, were present with a large expedition. The Ionians indeed were on hand at Cyprus and the Persians, having crossed by ships from Cilicia, went to Salamis by land; moreover, with their ships the Phoenicians were sailing round the promontory that is called the keys of Cyprus.
Then, that matter proving like that, the tyrants of Cyprus said, when they had called together the Ionians’ generals, “Ionian men, a choice to you we Cyprians are offering of which you want to approach. For if on land you want to be drawn up and make thorough trial of the Persians, it would be the hour for you to step out of your ships and be drawn up on land and for us to step into your ships to contend against the Phoenicians, but if you want rather to make thorough trial of the Phoenicians, you must see to it, whichever indeed of those things you choose, that in respect to the matter so far as depends on you Ionia and Cyprus will be free”. The Ionians said thereupon, “Us did send away the commonwealth of the Ionians to guard the sea, but not that we might give over our ships to the Cyprians and ourselves on land approach the Persians. Now, we there in charge of which we were stationed will try to be useful and you must remember the kinds of things that you were suffering when you were slaves to the Medes and prove good men”.
The Ionians replied with that and afterwards, when the Persians were present at the plain of the Salaminians, the kings of the Cyrians drew up completely all the other Cyrians opposite all the other soldiers by performing a drawing up against, but having selected the Salaminians’ and the Solians’ best, they drew it up against the Persians. And against Artybius, the general of the Persians, as a volunteer was drawn up Onesilus.
And Artybius was riding a horse taught to stand itself straight against a hoplite. Therefore, having learned that by inquiry, Onesilus, because there was his a shield-bearer in birth a Carian and in the things of war very esteemed and otherwise full of spirit, said to that one, “I have learned by inquiry Artybius’ horse stands itself straight and both with feet and mouth makes an end of anyone to whom it goes. You therefore take counsel and say immediately which you want to guard and strike, whether the horse or Artybius himself”. Thereupon his attendant said, “O king, ready I am to do either both or one of those things or in general whatever you impose; however, how to me at least it seems to be for your matters more expedient, I will point out. King and general must I assert king and general approach, because if you take down a man who’s a general, a great thing for you it proves and second, if he you, which may it not come to be, at the hands of a noteworthy person even dying’s a half misfortune, and we servants approach other servants and against horse, whose contrivances don’t you fear at all; for I promise you that he will stand himself opposite no man any longer at all”.
That he said and immediately afterwards the camps were joining battle on land and with ships. Now, in ships the Ionians proved tops that day and excelled over the Phoenicians and among those the Samians were best, and on land, when the camps had gone together, they came to blows and they were battling. Then concerning both generals this was happening: when Artybius who was sitting down on his horse was approaching toward Onesilus, Onesilus according as he had agreed with his shield-bearer smote Artybius in his approaching. So when the horse threw his feet on the shield of Onesilus, thereupon the Carian with a sickle struck and swept off the horse’s feet.
Artybius indeed, the general of the Persians, together with his horse fell there on the very spot, and while all the others also were battling, Stesenor, who was tyrant of Courium, played the traitor with no small force of men round him. And those Courians are said to be the Argives’ colonists. Then when the Courians had played the traitor, immediately also the Salaminians’ war chariots were performing the same act as the Courians and, that being done, the Persians were superior to the Cyprians. So, the camp routed, many others fell and in particular Onesilus, the son of Chersis, the very one who had brought about the standing apart of the Cyprians, and the king of the Solians, Aristocyprus, the son of Philocyprus and of that Philocyprus whom Solon the Athenian, when he had come to Cyprus, in epic verses had praised most of tyrants.
Now, as for Onesilus the Amathousians, because he had beseiged them, after they had cut off his head, conveyed it to Amathous and hung it above their gates. Then, the head hanging and by then being hollow, a swarm of bees slipped into it and filled it with combs. So, that matter having become like that, because the Amathousians were consulting the oracle about that object, it was prophesied to them that the head they should take down and bury and to Onesilus sacrifice as to a hero in every year and that for them, if they did that, it would turn out better.
Now, the Amathousians were doing that even during the period up to my time and the Ionians who fought the naval battle in Cyrus, when they had learned that the affairs of Onesilus were destroyed and all the other cities of the Cyprians were being besieged except Salamis and that to their earlier king, Gorgus, the Salaminians had given over, immediately the Ionians, having learned that, sailed away to Ionia. And of the cities in Cyprus there held out for the longest time when it was being besieged the Solians’, which by digging round under its wall in the fifth month the Persians took.
The Cyprians indeed, having become free a year, again anew were made slaves completely and Daurises who had Darius’ daughter as wife and Hymaees and Otanes, other Persian generals, those too who had Darius’ daughters as wives, after they had pursued after those of the Ionians who had advanced with an army to Sardis and forced them into their ships, when they had gained mastery over them in the battle, thereafter divided among themselves and were plundering the cities.
Daurises, having turned to the cities in the Hellespont, took Dardanus and took Abydus, Percote, Lampsacus and Paesus. Those on each day he was taking and when he was driving from Paesus against Parius, a city, to him there went a message that the Carians had the same mind as the Ionians and were standing apart from the Persians. Therefore having turned away from the Hellespont, he drove his army against Caria.
And somehow to the Carians that was announced out earlier than Daurises came. Then the Carians, after they had learned by inquiry, were gathered together at the so-called White Pillars and the river Marsyes that flows from the Idrian country and disembogues into the Maeander. So, when the Carians were gathered together, thereupon there were made many other counsels and one seeming to me to be quite best, Pixodarus the son of Mausolus a Cindyan man’s, who had in marriage a daughter of the king of the Cilicians, Syennesis.That man’s opinion imported that, after the Carians had stepped across the Maeander and had the river at their back, thus they should give battle that the Carians, not being able to flee back and compelled to remain on the very spot, might prove still better than their nature. Now, that opinion was not prevailing, but that at the Persians’ back the Maeander should become rather than at theirs, obviously indeed if a flight of the Persians took place and they were worsted in the battle, that they would not return back because of their falling into the river.
Then afterwards when the Persians were present and had stepped across the Maeander, thereupon by the Marsyes river the Carians gave battle to the Persians and fought a violent fight and for a long time and finally they were worsted on account of multitude. Among the Persians indeed fell men, up to two thousand, and among the Carians, up to ten thousand. Thereafter then those of them who had escaped were trapped at Labraunda in Zeus of the Army’s shrine, a large and holy grove of plane-trees. And the Carians are the only ones of those whom we know who conduct sacrifices to Zeus of the Army. So then those trapped there were taking counsel about salvation whether by either giving themselves over to the Persians or abandoning Asia entirely they would fare better.
Then for them, while they were taking that counsel, there came to be present in coming to the rescue the Milesians and the allies of those. So thereupon what counsel previously the Carians were taking they let go of and they again from the beginning were preparing to wage war. And to the Persians, when they were going against them, they gave battle and, having fought, were worsted over a greater extent than before. So, although many of all fell, most the Milesians were struck.
Then after that blow the Carians made an undertaking again and fought again. For having learned by inquiry that the Persians were minded to advance with an army against the cities, they laid in wait on the way in Pedasus, having fallen into which at night, the Persians were destroyed, both they themselves and their generals, Daurises, Amorges and Sisimaces, and with them died also Myrsus, the son of Gyges. And of that laying in wait the leader was Heracleides, son of Ibanollis, a Mylasan man.
Now, those of the Persians thus were destroyed and Hymaees, even himself being of those who had pursued after those of the Ionians who had advanced with an army to Sardis, after he had turned himself to the Propontis, took Mysian Cius and, after he had taken that out, when he had learned by inquiry that Daurises had utterly left the Hellespont and was advancing with an army toward Caria, having left behind the Propontis, he toward the Hellespont was leading his army and he took all the Aeolians who were inhabiting the land of Ilium and took the Gergithians who were left over from the ancient Teucrians. In short, Hymaees himself, while he was taking those nations, met his end by illness in the Troad.
That one indeed thus met his end and Artaphrenes, the subordinate ruler of Sardis, and Otanes, the third general, were appointed to advance with an army against Ionia and the adjacent Aeolian land. Now, in Ionia they took Clazomenae and among the Aeolians Cyme.
Then, while the cities were being captured, because Aristagores the Milesian, as he showed thoroughly, was not excellent in soul, who, having disturbed Ionia and stirred up great deeds, was counselling flight on seeing that. And, in addition, to him it appeared also impossible to overcome King Darius. Thereupon indeed hence he, having called together the men joined to his faction, was taking counsel, after he was saying that it was better for them for there to be a prepared place of refuge, if after all they were thrust out of Miletus, whether indeed then to Sardo from that place he should lead for colonization or to the Edonians’ Myrcinus, which Histiaeus was walling after he had taken it from Darius as a gift. That Aristagores asked.
Now, of Hecataeus, the son of Hegesander, an account-composing man, the opinion imported that they should dispatch to neither of those lands, but on the island of Leros he should build a wall and hold his peace, if he was banished from Miletus, and thereafter he, making his base in that land, would go down to Miletus.
That indeed Hecataeus was advising and to Aristagores himself the greatest opinion was to perform a leading away to Myrcinus. Miletus indeed he entrusted to Pythagores, an esteemed man among his townsmen, and he himself, having taken over everyone who wanted, sailed to Thrace and got hold of the country to which he had been dispatched. Then Aristagores himself, making his base in that land, was killed as well as his army, when he was sitting down round a city and the Thracians wanted to go out under a truce.