translated by Shlomo Felberbaum

Text and photographs Copyright © 1999—2003 Lost Trails
all rights reserved

Installment 36

So, in that time in which those were working on the proposed toil, quite all the foot, gathered together, with Xerxes were making their way to Sardis, after they had set off from Critalla in Cappadocia; for there it had been said should be gathered together the whole army that by the mainland was with Xerxes himself to make its way. Now, who of the subordinate rulers brought the most beautifully equipped army and took hold of the proposed gifts from the king, I am not able to point out; for I know not even to begin with that they came to judging about that. Then they, when they had crossed the Halys river and come into association with Phrygia, making their way through it, they came to be at Celaenae, where the springs go up of the river Maeander and another no smaller than the Maeander, whose name in fact is Catarrectes, that from the public square itself of Celaenae rises up and disembogues into the Maeander, a land where also the Silenus Marsyes’ skin is hung up, which an account given by the Phygians holds was flayed off by Apollo and hung up.

In that city sat down awaiting Pythius, Atys’ son, a Lydian man, and he entertained as guests the king’s whole host with the greatest entertainments for guests as well as Xerxes himself and was announcing out an offer of money, because he wanted to furnish it for the war. Then, Pythius announcing out an offer of money, Xerxes asked those of the Persians who were near being who of men and possessing how much money did Pythius announce out that offer. And they said, “O king, that is he who presented Darius, the father of you, with the golden plane-tree and vine, who in fact now is the first of human beings in wealth of those that we know after you”.

So, having marvelled at the last of the sayings, Xerxes himself next asked Pythius how much money was his. And he said, “O king, neither will I make a concealment from you nor will I allege my not knowing my own substance, but I, knowing, will recount exactly. For, as soon as I had learned by inquiry that you were going down to the Greek sea, because I wanted to give you money for the war, I came to learn well and found by reckoning that of silver two thousands of talents were mine and of gold four hundred myriads of Daric staters that lack still seven thousands. And with those I present you, while for me myself from slave captives and plots of land is a sufficing livelihood”.

He said that, and Xerxes, having taken pleasure at what had been said, said, “Lydian foreign friend, I, since I have gone out of the Persian country, have communed with no man to this moment who was willing to put forth entertainments for guests for my army and not any who stood himself in position in my sight and with an offer’s being announced out by himself wished to contribute money for the war, outside of you. But you both have greatly entertained as guests my army and have been announcing out an offer of much money. Hence, to you I in return for it offer honors like this: I take you as my foreign friend and the four hundred myriads of staters of yours I will fill out by giving seven thousands that for you the four hundred myriads may not be lacking still seven thousands, but there may be for you a complete reckoning. Both possess yourself the very possessions that you have acquired and know how to be on each and every occasion like that; for not you, if you do that, either in the present or in time it will repent”.

So, having said that and having caused it to be brought to completion, he was making his way on each and every occasion farther. Then, passing by a city of the Phrygians called Anaua and a lake from which salt is produced, he came to Colossae, a large city in Phrygia, in which the Lycus river by throwing itself into a chasm of earth is made to disappear; thereafter after an interval of approximately somewhere about five stades it reappears and disembogues, even that, into the Maeander. Then the army, setting off from Colossae for the boundaries of the Phrygians and the Lydians, came to Cydrara, a city, where a pillar, fixed fast and set up by Croesus, discloses through letters the boundaries.

So, when from Phrygia they had thrown themselves into Lydia, since the way was split and one part was leading to the left toward Caria and one to the right to Sardis, where for one making one’s way there proves every necessity both to cross the Maeander river and to go to Callatebus, a city in which men, workers for the people, make honey from the tamarisk and wheat, Xerxes, going that way, found a plane-tree, which because of beauty he presented with a golden adornment and to an “immortal” man as a caretaker he entrusted, and the next day he came to the Lydians’ city.

So, having come to Sardis, he first was sending away heralds to Greece to demand earth and water and to say publicly that they should prepare dinners for the king, but neither to Athens nor to Lacedaemon he was sending away for the demanding of earth, while he was to all the rest of the land. And for the sake of this for the second time he was sending away for earth and water: all who previously made no gift to Darius, when he had sent, those certainly, he thought, at that time in fear would make a gift; hence, because he wanted to come to learn completely about that very matter, he was sending.

Then, after that, he was preparing himself with the intention that he would drive to Abydos. So they in that time were bridging the Hellespont from Asia to Europe. Now, there is in the Chersonese on the Hellespont, between the city of Sestus and Madytus a harsh promontory that extends down into the sea opposite Abydos, where after that, not much time later, in the time of Xanthippus, Ariphron’s son, as general of the Athenians, they took hold of Artayctes, a Persian man, Sestus’ subordinate ruler, and nailed him stretched out alive to a plank, who in fact was bringing women into Protesileos’ shrine in Elaeous and performing lawless works.

Hence, to that promontory, setting off from Abydos, they were making bridges to whom it was assigned, the Phoenicians one out of white flax and the Egyptians one of papyrus. It is seven stades from Abydos to the land opposite. And indeed, the passage having been bridged, a storm, having come on, broke up and unloosed all that.

So, when Xerxes had learned of it by inquiry, considering it awful, he bade come at the Hellespont with three hundred blows by whip and let go down into the open sea a pair of fetters. And by now I have heard that even branders he sent off to brand the Hellespont. Hence then he was enjoining on those who were doing the striking with sticks to say barbarous and presumptuous words: “O bitter water, a master inflicts this as a penalty on you, in that you committed an injustice against him although you had suffered nothing at his hands. And King Xerxes will cross you, whether you at any rate want it or not, and to you in accordance with justice after all no one among human beings sacrifices, on that ground that you are a both turbid and salty river”. The sea indeed he was giving the injunction with that to punish and of those who were standing in charge of the bridging of the Hellespont to cut off the heads.

And they were doing that to whom that unagreeable honor was assigned and other master-builders were making the bridges and were making the bridges this way: having put together penteconters and triremes, underneath the way toward the Euxine sea three hundred sixty and underneath the other three hundred and fourteen, at an angle to the Pontus and in accordance with the flowing of the Hellespont, that there might be a keeping up of the tension of the gear, having put them together, then they let go down very long anchors, ones of the one way toward the Pontus because of winds blowing out from within and ones of the other toward the west and the Aegean because of the west wind and the south wind. And as a way of sailing through and out they left open an interval between the penteconters and triremes, that both to the Pontus whoever wanted might be able to sail with small boats and out, out of the Pontus. Then, having done that, they were stretching down the gear from the land by twisting them with wooden windlasses and no longer placed each of the two kinds separately but apportioned two pieces of gear out of white flax for each bridge and four of papyrus. The thickness and beautiful appearance was the same, but in proportion the linen pieces were heavier, a cubit of which weighed a talent. So, when the passage had been bridged, having sawed down logs of pieces of wood and made them equal the pontoon’s breadth, in order they were putting them down on top of the gear’s tension and, having performed the putting in a row, thereupon again they were tying them down. Then, having done that, they carried on wood, having put the wood too in order, they carried on earth and, having also stamped down the earth, they drew along a fence on this side and on that side, that the yoke animals might not fear the sea when they saw it from above.

Then, when both the matters of the bridge had been fully arranged as well as those round Athos, and the mounds round the mouths of the channel, which were made because of the flood-tide, that the mouths of the excavation might not be filled in, and the channel itself were announced as having been completely made, thereupon, having wintered, together with spring the army in a state of preparation of itself from Sardis was setting off to drive to Abydos. Then, for it, when it had set off, the sun, having abandoned its seat in the sky, was invisible, although both things were not clouded over and there was clearness in the highest degree, and instead of day it became night. So, to Xerxes, after he had seen and come to learn of it, it became a concern and he asked the Magians what the apparition wished to bring forth to light. Then they asserted that to the Greeks the god was showing beforehand an abandonment of their cities and said he the sun was the Greeks’ shower beforehand and the moon theirs. Having learned that by inquiry, Xerxes, being very joyful, was conducting the drive.

Then, when he was driving out his host, Pythius the Lydian in utter fear of the apparition in the sky and incited by the gifts, went to Xerxes and was saying this: “O master, I would be in need of something from you and want to receive an obtaining, a service which for you in fact is easy to do and for me proves great.”. So Xerxes, thinking he would be in need of everything rather than what he requested, asserted that he would do the service and indeed was bidding say publicly what he was requesting. Then he, when he had heard that, was saying, since he had become bold, this: ”O master, in fact mine are five children and them all it befalls together with you to advance with the army against Greece. You then, o king, me who have come to this point of age pity and one of the children of mine, the oldest, release from the host, that of me myself and my property he may be a caretaker. And the four lead for yourself together with yourself and, having done what you have in mind, may you return back”.

Xerxes became very angry and was replying with this: “O bad human being, do you dare, when I am advancing with an army myself against Greece and leading my children, brothers, relatives and friends, to make mention of your child, although you are my slave, who had to follow with all your house, with your wife herself? Now, well this know completely, that in the ears of human beings a spirit settles that, when it hears good things, with delight fills up the body, but, when it hears the opposite of those, it swells up with anger. Now, when you did good things and were announcing out for youself offers of other things like those, you will not boast that you excelled the king in benefits and, since you have turned yourself to what’s more shameless, you will not receive your due but less than your due. For your entertainments for your guests deliver you and four of your children, but of the one, whom you are trying to hold onto most, by the soul you will be punished”. Then, when he had given that answer, immediately he was bidding those to whom it had been assigned to do that find out the oldest of Pythius’ sons and cut him through his middle and, when they had performed the cutting through, set out the cut halves, one on the right part of the way and one on the left, and there the army go through and out.

So, those having done that, after that the army went through and out. The carriers of equipment and the yoke-animals first were leading and after those an army of nations of all kinds mixed up, not in a state of being in divisions. And where over half were, a space was left between and those were not communing with the king. Indeed a thousand horsemen were leading forth, selected from all Persians, afterwards a thousand spear-bearers, those also selected from all, who had turned their spear-heads down to the earth, and afterwards ten horses called sacred Nesaean adorned as beautifully as possible. And they are called Nesaean horses after this place: a large plain in the Median land it is, whose name is Nesaean. Hence indeed that plain produces large horses. And behind those ten horses the sacred chariot of Zeus was stationed on, which eight white horses were drawing, and again, behind the horses followed on foot a charioteer who was holding onto the reins—for indeed no one among human beings onto that seat steps up—and behind that Xerxes himself on a chariot with Nesaean horses, while by him was standing a charioteer, whose name was Patiramphes, child of Otanes, a Persian man.

Xerxes drove out thus from Sardis and stepped out and changed his place, whenever a whim took him, from the chariot to a covered chariot .And behind him were spear-bearers among the Persians, the best and most well-born thousand, with their spear-heads in accordance with law, afterwards another thousand horse, selected from the Persians, and after the horse, selected from the Persians left, ten thousand; that was the foot and of those a thousand on their lances instead of spikes had golden pomegranates and all round they were enclosing all the others, while the nine thousand, being within those, had silver pomegranates. And those who turned their spear-heads to the earth also had golden pomegranates and those following nearest Xerxes apples. Then behind the ten thousand were stationed ten thousand horse of the Persians and after the horse a space was also left between of two stades and thereafter the remaining crowd went mixed up.

Now, from Lydia the army was going its way to the river Caicus and the Mysian land and, when it had set off from Caicus, with the mountain of Cane on the left through Atarneus to the city of Carene. Then from that land through the plain of Thebe it was making its way and was passing by the city of Atramytteium and the Pelasgian Antandrus. Then, having taken hold of Ide, to the left side it went, to the land of Ilium. And first on it, when under Ide a night it had waited up, thunderclaps and hurricanes fell in and a numerous crowd right there destroyed.

So, the army having come to the Scamander, which was the first of rivers, after they had set off from Sardis and laid their hands on the way, to have failed in its stream and to have not been sufficient for the host and the cattle to be drunk, when indeed to that river Xerxes had come, to Priam’s Pergamon he went up with a desire to behold it. Then, having beheld it and learned by inquiry each of those events, he sacrificed a thousand cows to Athena of Ilium and libations the Magians poured to the heroes. So, for them, when they had done that for themselves, in the night a fear on the camp fell. Then, together with day it was making its way thence and on the left was skirting the city of Rhoetium, of Ophrynium and of Dardanus, the very land indeed that is bordering on Abydos, and on the right the Teucrian Gergithians.

So, when they had come to be in Abydos, Xerxes wished to see for himself the whole army. In fact, because there was made beforehand on a hill purposely for him there a seat out and forward of white stone (and the Abydenians were the makers, the king having made the injunction previously), there, when he was sitting, looking down on the shore, he was beholding both the foot and the ships and, beholding, desired to see for himself a contest of the ships’ being made. And when it had been made and the Sidonian Phoenicians were the winners, he took pleasure in the contest and the host.

Then, when after all he was seeing the whole Hellespont covered up with the ships and all the promontories and the Abydenians’ plains filled with human beings, thereupon Xerxes thought himself blessed and after that wept.

So, having come to learn of it, Artabanus, his father’s brother, who at the first had showed forth an opinion freely by advising Xerxes not to advance with an army against Greece, that man pointed out to himself that Xerxes wept and asked him, “O king, how you have done now and a little earlier works far separated from each other! For, after you have thought yourself blessed, you are weeping”. And he said, “For there entered into me to feel utter pity when I had reckoned how all human life is brief, if at least of those, being so many, no one will be around for a hundredth year”. And the other replied by saying, “Of other sufferings during our living we are sufferers more pitiable than that. For in so brief a life no human being is so happy by nature, among neither those nor all the other, to whom it will not occur many times and not once to want to be dead rather than to live. For misfortunes in their befalling and illnesses in their confounding, even though it is brief, make life seem to be long. Thus death, our living being toilsome, has proven a most preferable refuge for the human being and the god, having given a taste of a period of being as sweet, is found to be begrudging”.

Then Xerxes was replying by saying, “Artabanus, now, concerning human living, being precisely like that that you judge it to be, let us stop and not remember evils when we have good matters in hand. But point this out to me: if to you the sight of the vision in sleep had appeared not so clear, would you have held your former opinion and not allowed me to advance with an army against Greece or would you have changed in your stand? Come, that to me exactly speak”. Then the other was replying by saying, “O king, may the sight that appeared above of your dream, as we both want, come to its end! But I still even to this time am somewhat full of fear and not within myself when I think over many other matters and, in particular, see that to you the two greatest things of all are most hostile”.

Then Xerxes thereupon was replying with this: “Divine of men, of what kind do you say are those two most hostile to me? To you is the foot blameworthy concerning its multitude and the Greek armed force does it appear will be many times larger than ours or our naval force will be left behind that of theirs or is it maybe both those things? For if to you in that respect our affairs appear to be somewhat lacking, of another army the quickest way one would collect a gathering”.

Then the other was replying by saying, ‘O king, neither with that army would anyone who at least has intelligence find fault nor with the ships’ multitude and, if you collect more, the two that I am speaking of to you become still far more hostile. And those two are land and sea. For neither of the sea is any harbor so large anywhere, as I conjecture, that, a storm being stirred up, will be sufficient to receive that naval force of yours and bring thoroughly to safety your ships—and yet not one by itself must be, but ones along the whole mainland, along which indeed you are being conveyed; hence indeed, there being for you no harbors able to receive, come to learn that accidents rule human beings and not human beings accidents—and so, one of the two to you having been spoken of, the other I am going to speak of: land indeed is established as hostile to you this way: if nothing wishes to get established as opposed to you, it becomes the more hostile to you the farther at all you go forth as you steal for yourself on each and every occasion what’s beyond. And of faring well there is for human beings no fullness. And so for you, on the ground that no one is standing in opposition, I say the country in proving to be greater in greater time will bring forth famine. And a man thus would be best, if while he is taking counsel he should be afraid as he thinks over that every thing he will suffer, but engaged in his work should be bold”.

Xerxes answered with this: “Artabanus, reasonably you at least judge each of those matters, but keep neither fearing all nor thinking over everything alike. For, if indeed you should want in the case of the matter which on each and every occasion is borne in on you to think over everything alike, you would not at all do anything. And it’s better to be bold in all things and suffer half of the awful rather than to dread prematurely every matter and suffer not at all anything. But if in disputing against everything that is being said you will not show forth what’s certain, you ought to be tripped up in it similarly as the one who made speeches opposite to those of yours. Now, that matter is on an equal footing and how must one, being a human being, know what’s certain? I think for my part in no way. Theirs who want to act then, generally, the profits love to become and theirs who think over all matters and hesitate they not at all are willing. You see Persians’ affairs to what point of power they have gone forth. If then those who became kings before me had used opinions of a similar kind as you or they, not having used opinions like that, had had others as advisers like your kind, you would never have seen their having gone to that point, but, as it is, they were throwing up, like throws in dice, dangers and they brought them forth for themselves to that point. For great affairs by great dangers are willing to be utterly taken. We then in being made like those the most beautiful hour of the year are making our way and, after we have subjected all Europe, will return back without having met with famine anywhere or having undergone any other unagreeable suffering. For, on the one hand, we ourselves, bringing for ourselves much food, are making our way and, on the other, of those whosever land and nation anywhere we set foot on we will have the food, as we are advancing with an army against ploughing and not pastoral men”.

Artabanus said after that, “O king, since you do not allow being afraid of any matter, then consent you to my advice; for it is necessary concerning many affairs more speech to extend. Cyrus, Cambyses’ son, subjected all Ionia except Athens to be tributary to the Persians. Hence those men I advise you by no contrivance lead against their fathers; for even without those we are able to prove superior to our enemies. For they, if they follow, must prove most unjust in utterly making a slave for themselves of their mother city or most just in joining in its freeing. Now, in proving most unjust they procure no great profit for us and in proving most just prove able to harm greatly your host. Hence cast for yourself into your spirit in fact the ancient saying how well it has been spoken, that not together with its beginning is every end utterly brought out to light”.

Xerxes thereupon replied, “Artabanus, of the opinions that you have brought forth to light for yourself you are tripped up concerning that one indeed most, you who fear the Ionians lest they should undergo a change, of whom we have the greatest proof, of whom you prove a witness as well as the others who joined Darius in advancing with an army against the Scythians, in that in the power of those the whole Persian host proved to destroy or to cause to survive and they gave a sign of justice and faithfulness and nothing unagreeable. And besides that, because in our land they have left behind offspring, wives and property, we must not even think over that they would do anything newer. Thus that too stop fearing and with a good spirit bring to safety my house and my tyranny; for I to you, alone of all, entrust my sceptres”.

Having said that and dispatched Artabanus to Susa, next Xerxes sent for the most esteemed among the Persians and, when they were present for him, was saying this: “O Persians, wanting this from you, I have made a gathering together, that you prove good men and not utterly shame the works that have been formerly done by the Persians, as they were great and worth much, and let us, each one and all together, have eagerness; for that, a good common to all, is anxiously being effected. And for this reason I publicly proclaim you should hold yourselves fast to the war strenuously: namely, as I have learned by inquiry, we are advancing with an army against good men, and, if we gain mastery over them, to us not any other army will stand in opposition ever among human beings. Let us then now cross over, after we have prayed to the gods who have obtained as their lot the Persian land”.

That day they were preparing themselves for the crossing over and the next they were waiting as they were wishing to see for themselves the sun’s going up and they were burning all kinds of incenses on the bridges and with myrtle-branches strewing the way. And when the sun was rising up overhead, pouring a libation from a golden drinking-bowl into the sea, Xerxes was praying to the sun that no chance should happen to him like that that would stop him from subjecting Europe before he should come to be at the limits of that land. Then, when he had prayed, he threw the drinking-bowl into the Hellespont as well as a golden bowl and a Persian sword that they call an acinaces. Regarding those I am not able to decide either whether in dedicating to the sun he let them go down into the open sea or whether it repented him that he had whipped the Hellespont and in compensation for that he was presenting with them the sea.

So, when that had been done by him, they were crossing over, along one of the bridges, that toward the Pontus, the foot and all the horse together, and along that toward the Aegean the yoke-animals and the train of servants. And there were leading first the ten thousand Persians, all crowned, and after those the mixed together army of all kinds of nations, that day those, and the next first the horsemen and those who turned their spear-heads down and those too were crowned and afterwards the sacred horse and the sacred chariot and on top of them Xerxes himself and the spear-bearers and the thousand horsemen and on top of those all the rest of the army. And the ships at the same time were being led out to the land opposite. But by now I have heard also that the king crossed last of all.

Then Xerxes, when he had crossed over to Europe, was beholding the army’s crossing over under whips. And the army crossed in seven days and seven kindly times without having rested any time. Thereupon it is said, by then when Xerxes had crossed over the Hellespont, a Hellespontian man said, “O Zeus, just why, having made youself look like a Persian man and having given yourself as name instead of Zeus Xerxes, do you wish to make Greece to be stood up and so are leading all human beings? For even without those it would be possible for you to do that”.

Then, when all had crossed over, for them, after they had set off for the way, a great portent appeared that Xerxes considered of no account, although it was easy to interpret: namely, a horse brought forth a hare. Hence it proved easy to interpret this way, that Xerxes was to drive a host against Greece most proudly and most magnificently and back he, running out of concern for himself, was to come to the same place. And there came about also another portent for him, when he was in Sardis: namely, a mule brought forth a mule with two pudenda, these of a male and those of a female, and those of the male were above.

Having considered no account of both, he was making his way farther and with him was the foot army. And the naval force was sailing outside the Hellespont and being conveyed along the land, while it was doing its deed across from the foot. For it was sailing toward the west as it was effecting its coming to the Sarpedonian promontory, to which it had been said to it before to come and wait around, while the army on the mainland toward the east and the sun’s risings up was going its way through the Chersonese and it had the tomb of Helle, Athamas’ daughter, on the right and the city of Cardia on the left and was making its way through the middle of a city whose name in fact is Agore. Then thence it was bending round the gulf that is called Black and the Black River, that held out not then for the army in its stream, but failed, and, after it had crossed that river, after which in fact that gulf has its appellation, it went toward the west and was going out by Aenus, an Aeolian city, and the lake of Stentor, until it came to Doriscus.

Now, Doriscus is in Thrace a beach and a large plain and through it flows a large river, the Hebrus. In it had been built that royal wall precisely that is called Doriscus and a guard of Persians was established in it by Darius from that time when he had advanced with an army against the Scythians. Hence the place seemed to Xerxes to be suitable to marshall within and count out the army and he was doing that. Indeed when all the ships had come to Doriscus, the rulers of the ships at Xerxes’ bidding conveyed them to the beach adjacent to Doriscus, in which Samothracian Sale, a city, is built as a city as well as is Zone and there’s last there Serreum, a named promontory. And that place anciently was the Cicones’. To that beach they brought in their ships and were refreshing them, after they had drawn them up, while he in Doriscus during that time was having a numbering made of his host.

Now, of all the multitude each group was furnishing to the number, I am not able give the exact account, because it is said by no human beings, but of the whole foot army together the multitude appeared a hundred and seventy myriads. And they performed the counting out in this manner: having brought together into one place a myriad of human beings and packed tight together that group as much as they could, they draw round it on the outside a circle and, having drawn it round and having let the ten thousand go away, they threw round a fence of stones down along the circle that in height came up to a man’s navel. So, having made that, they were making others go into what had been built round as a housing, until they counted out all in that manner and, after they had counted, by nations they were marshalling them up.

Now, those who were advancing with the army were these: the Persians equipped this way: round their heads they had so-called tiaras, unstiffened caps, round their body embroidered sleeved tunics and breastplates of iron scales fishlike in appearance, round their legs trousers and instead of shields wicker bucklers; moreover below quivers were hanging. Moreover, they had short spears, large bows and reed arrows and in addition daggers that dangled by the right thigh from the girdle. And they were furnishing for themselves as ruler Otanes, Amestris’ son, the father of Xerxes’ wife. So, they were called formerly by the Greeks Cephenians, but by themselves and those settled round Artians. Then, when Perseus, Danae and Zeus’ son, had come to Cepheus, Belus’ son, and had had his daughter, Andromede, as wife, there was born to him a child, to whom as a name he gave Perses, and he left that one down there; for in fact Cepheus was childless, without male generation. After that one indeed they got hold of their appellation.

The Medes then, dressed the same way, were advancing with an army; for that equipment is Median and not Persian. And the Medes as ruler were furnishing for themselves Tigranes, an Achaemenid man, and were called formerly by all Arians, but, Medea the Colchian having come from Athens to those Arians, those too changed their name. The Medes themselves about themselves speak this way. The Cissians then, advancing with the army, in all other respects were equipped precisely according as the Persians, but instead of caps they were wearers of turbans. And of the Cissians Anaphes, Otanes’ son, was ruler. And the Hyrcanians were provided with furnishings according as the Persians and as leader were furnishing for themselves Megapanus, the one later than that became Babylon’s guardian.

Then the Assyrians, advancing with the army, round their heads had helmets of bronze and plaited in a barbarian manner not easy to describe and had shields, spears and daggers nearly resembling the Egyptian articles of equipment and in addition clubs made of pieces of wood knobbed with iron and linen breastplates. And those by the Greeks were being called Syrians, but by the barbarians they were called Assyrians. And between those were the Chaldians. And the ruler of them was Otaspes, Artachaees’ son.

Then the Bactrians with round their heads things most near to the Median were advancing with the army and with native reed bows and short spears. Then the Sacians, the Scythians, round their heads had turbans brought out to a sharp point, fixed straight, were donning trousers and had native bows and daggers and in addition also sagaris, battle-axes. And those, being Amyrgian Scythians, they were calling Sacians; for the Persians call all Scythians Sacians. And of the Bacians and the Sacians the ruler was Hystaspes, Darius and Atossa Cyrus’ daughter’s son.

Then the Indians were donning clothes made of pieces of wood and had reed bows and reed arrows, and there was on top iron. The Indians were dressed thus and they were assigned to and were joining with Pharnazathres, Artabates’ son.

Then the Arians were equipped with Median bows and in all other respects precisely according as the Bactrians. And of the Arians the ruler was Sisamnes, Hydarnes’ son. Then the Parthians, the Chorasmians, the Sogdians as well as the Gandarians and the Dadicians had the same equipment that the Bactrians too and were advancing with an army. And of those these were rulers: of the Parthians and the Chorasmians Artabazus, Pharnaces’ son, of the Sogdians Azanes, Artaeus’ son, and of the Gandarians and of the Dadicians Artyphius, Artabanus’ son.

Then the Caspians, donning cloaks of skin and having native reed bows and acinaceses, were advancing with an army. Those were equipped thus and as a leader were furnishing for themselves Ariomardus, Artyphius’ brother, and the Sarangians with dyed clothes were conspicuous and had boots that extended up to the knee and Median bows and spears. And of the Sarangians the ruler was Pherendates, Megabazus’ son. Then the Pactyians were wearers of cloaks of skin and had native bows and daggers and the Pactyians as ruler were furnishing for themselves Artayntes, Ithamitres’ son.

Then the Outians, Mycians and Paricanians were equipped precisely according as the Pactyians. And of those the rulers were these: of the Outians and the Mycians Arsamenes, Darius’ son, and of the Paricanians Siromitres, Oeobazus’ son.

Then the Arabians were wearing long mantles girded below and had bows bent back at the right, large ones. Then the Ethiopians had fastened on themselves leopard skins and lion skins and had bows made of the palm-tree’s broad blade, large ones, not smaller than ones measuring four cubits, and, on top of that, small reed arrows (and instead of iron a stone made sharp was on top, with which also they carve seals). Moreover, in addition, they had spears (and, on top of that, a horn of a gazelle made sharp was on top in the manner of a lance) and had also knobbed clubs. And of their body half they were smearing over for themselves with chalk when they were going to battle and half with red ochre. And of the Arabians and the Ethiopians who are settled over Egypt the ruler was Arsames, Darius and Artystone Cyrus’ daughter’s son, whom Darius had most affection for of his wives and had made a golden likeness of beaten out with a hammer. Indeed of the Ethiopians above Egypt and the Arabians the ruler was Arsames.

But the Ethiopians from the sun’s risings up-for two kinds indeed were advancing with the army-were assigned to the Indians and were differing in no looks from the others except in speech and hair only; for the Ethiopians from the sun’s direction are straight-haired and those from Libya have the wooliest hair of all human beings. Those Ethiopians from Asia in the greater number of respects are provided with furnishings precisely according as the Indians and had the front parts of the foreheads of horses on their heads flayed off with the ears and the mane; in fact instead of a crest the mane served. Moreover, the ears of the horses fixed straight they had and as bulwarks instead of shields they put forward cranes’ skins.

Then the Libyans were going with leather equipment and with the use of javelins burnt at the tip and as a ruler they were furnishing for themselves Massages, Oarizus’ son.

Then the Paphlagonians were advancing with the army with plaited helmets as well as small shields and not large spears and in addition javelins and daggers as well as round their feet native boots that extended to the middle of the shin. Then the Ligyians, the Matienians, the Mariandynians and the Syrians with the same equipment as the Paphlagonians were advancing with the army. And those Syrians by the Persians are called Cappadocians. Now, of the Paphlagoniansand the Matienians Dotus, Megasidrus’ son, was the ruler and or the Mariandynians, the Ligyians and the Syrians Gobryes, Darius and Artystone’s son.

Then the Phrygians had equipment most nearly like the Paphlagonian and were altering little. And the Phrygians, as the Macedonians say, were called Brigians as long a time as they, being European, were settled with the Macedonians, but, after they had changed and gone to Asia, together with their country their name too they changed. Then the Armenians were provided with furnishings precisely according as the Phrygians, since they were the Phrygians’ colonists. Of those both together the ruler was Artochmes, who had Darius’ daughter as a wife.

Then the Lydians most nearly like the Greek had armor. And the Lydians were called Meionians in the former time, but after Lydus, Atys’ son, they got hold of their appellation and changed their name. Then the Mysians had on their heads native helmets and small shields and were using javelins burnt at the tip. And those are the Lydians’ colonists and after the mountain Olympus are called Olympienians. And of the Lydians and the Mysians the ruler was Artaphrenes, Artaphrenes’ son, who had thrown into Marathon together with Datis.

Then the Thracians with fox-skins on their heads were advancing with the army and with tunics round their body and, on top of that, had thrown round on themselves embroidered long mantles and round their feet and their shins boots of fawnskins and, in addition, javelins, little shields and small daggers. And those, after they had crossed over to Asia, were called Bithynians and in the earlier time were being called, as they themselves say, Strymonians, because they were settling by the Strymon. Then they assert they were made to stand up from their customary abodes by the Teucrians and the Mysians. And of the Thracians in Asia the ruler was Bassaces, Artabanus’ son.

Then men had small shields of raw oxhide and two weapons for casting forth of Lycian workmanship each had and on their heads bronze helmets. Moreover, on the helmets were the ears and horns of an ox made of bronze and also on top were crests, while on their shins with crimson rags they were wrapped round. Among those men is an oracle of Ares.

Then the Cabelians who are Meionians and are called Lasonians had the same dress as the Cilicians, which, whenever at the Cilicians’ contingent in my going through and out I come to be, then I will indicate. Then the Milyians had short spears and had pinned clothes on themselves and among them some had Lycian bows and round their heads caps made of hides. Of those all the ruler was Badres, Hystanes’ son.

Then the Moschians had wooden caps round their heads as well as shields and shorts spear and large spear-heads were on top. Then the Tibarenians, the Macronians and the Mossynoecians, dressed precisely according as the Moschians, were advancing with the army. And those there were joining in marshalling these rulers: the Moschians and the Tibarenians Ariomardus, the child of Darius and Parmys, the daughter of Smerdis, Cyrus’ son, and the Macronians and the Mossynoecians Artayctes Cheramis’ son, who was guardian of Sestus on the Hellespont.

Then the Marians had native plaited helmets on their heads as well as small shields of skin and javelins. Then the Cholchians wooden helmets round their heads, small shields of raw oxhide and short spears and, in addition, knives had. And of the Marians and the Colchians the ruler was Pharandates, Teaspis’ son. Then the Alarodians and the Saspeirians, armed precisely according as the Colchians, were advancing with the army. And of those Masistius, Siromitres’ son, was the ruler.

Then the island nations that were following from the Red sea and they of the islands, on which the king settles down those called “the drawn up”, most nearly like the Median had clothing and gear. And of those islanders the ruler was Mardontes, Bagaeus’ son, who, being a general in Mycale, the next year after that met his end in the battle.

Those were the nations that were advancing with the army by the mainland and were assigned to the foot. Hence, of that army the rulers were those very ones who have been spoken of are and they who performed the drawing up and performed the numbering out were those as well as who appointed rulers of a thousand and rulers of ten thousand, while they who did rulers of a hundred and rulers of ten were the rulers of ten thousand. And of regiments and nations were other commanders. Those were indeed the very ones who were spoken of as rulers.

(to be continued)

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