Now, those of the Persians left down in Europe by Darius, of whom Megabazus was ruler, first the Perinthians among the Hellespontians, who wanted not to be obedient to Darius, subjected, after earlier too they had been treated harshly by the Paeonians. For accordingly the Paeonians from Strymon, at the god’s having given an oracle that they should advance with an army against the Perinthians and if the Perinthians, sitting down in opposition, called to them for themselves by name with shouting, then they should lay on hands, and if they shouted not to them, they should not lay on hands, they, the Paeonians, did that. So, the Perinthians sitting down in opposition in the suburb, thereupon a triple single combat on the basis of a calling forth came about for them; for in fact man on man and horse on horse they set as well as dog on dog. Then, the Perinthians having victory in two respects, when they sang “paean” in a state of joy, the Paeonians conjectured that was the oracle and said doubtless among themselves, “Now would be the oracle’s word’s being brought to completion for us; now ours is the deed”. Thus on the Perinthians, when they had sung “paean”, the Paeonians laid hands and they prevailed much and left few of them.
Indeed what was done previously by the Paeonians this way was done and then, although the Perinthians were proving good concerning their freedom, the Persians and Megabazus prevailed over them by multitude. Then, when Perinthus had been worsted, Megabazus drove the army through Thrace and every city and every nation of those settled there he tamed himself for the king; for that had been enjoined on him by Darius, to subject Thrace.
Now, the Thracians’ nation is the largest, at least after the Indians’, of all human beings’, and if by one it should be ruled or be minded in accordance with the same thing, it would be unconquerable and far the strongest of all nations in my judgement. But, because that’s without means and without way of contriving among them, that it at any time come into being, they are indeed in accordance with that lacking strength. And they have many names, each group according to countries, and those all use laws pretty similar in all respects, except the Getians, the Trausians and those settled inland of the Crestonians.
Of those then what the Getians who think themselves immortal do has been said by me and the Trausians bring to completion all the other matters in accordance with the same ways as the rest of the Thracians, but concerning him who is born to them and him who passes away they act like this: him who has been born his relatives, sitting round, mourn because of all the evils that he must endure after he has been born, while they recount all the human sufferings, and him who has passed away they, playing and taking pleasure, conceal with earth and say over all the evils that he is departed from in a state of complete happiness.
Further, those inland of the Crestonians act like this: each has many wives. Accordingly, whenever one of them dies, there comes about a great judging among his wives and among friends strong rivalries concerning this one about which woman among them was most loved by her husband and she whoever is judged and honored, encomionized by men and women, has her throat cut into the grave by her nearest relation and, having had her throat cut, she is buried with the man, while all the other women consider it a great misfortune: for that proves the greatest disgrace for them.
Now, of all the rest of the Thracians there is the following law: they sell their offspring for leading off. Their maidens they guard not, but allow to have intercourse with the men they themselves want. Their wives they guard strongly; they buy their wives from their begetters for much money. To be branded is judged of good birth and the lack of branding lacking in birth. To be idle’s most beautiful and earth’s worker most lacking in honor. To live from war and plunder’s most beautiful.
Those are their most noteworthy laws and they reverence these gods only, Ares, Dionysus and Artemis, but their kings, apart from all the rest of their fellow-citizens, reverence Hermes most of gods and swear by that one alone and they say they themselves are descended from Hermes.
Further, the acts of burial for the happy among them are these: three days they lay out the corpse and, after they have cut the throats of all kinds of sacred victims, feast themselves, when they have wept first previously; thereafter they perform burial with a burning up or otherwise with a concealing with earth and, after they have piled up a mound, they hold every kind of contest, in which the greatest prizes are offered in proportion for single combat. The acts of burial of the Thracians indeed are those.
Now, about what’s toward the north still of that country no one is able to point out what’s exact regarding who are the human beings settled on it, but by now beyond the Ister a desolate country manifestly is and without bound. And the only ones I am able to learn of by inquiry are the human beings settled beyond the Ister, whose name is the “Sigynnae” and who are users of Median clothing. Moreover, their horses are shaggy on their whole body (and over the extent of five fingers is the depth of their hairs), are small, snub-nosed and unable to carry human beings and, when they are yoked under chariots, are the swiftest; thereupon the natives drive chariots. Further, the borders of those extend near the Enetians in Adries and that they are the Medes’ colonists they say, but how those have come to be the Medes’ colonists, although I am not able to point it out for myself, yet everything could be in the long passage of time. Anyhow, “sigynnae” the Ligyians settled up inland of Massalia call the retail merchants and the Cyprians do the spears. In addition, as the Thracians say, bees occupy what’s beyond the Ister and through their agency it is not possible to go through the farther place. Now, to me in saying that they seem to say things not reasonable. For those living beings appear to be ill suited for chill; rather to me what’s under the Bear seems to be unsettled on account of the cold spells. Now, that about that country is said; anyhow, its parts by the sea Megabazus was rendering obedient to the Persians.
Darius then, as soon as he, having gone across the Hellespont, had come to Sardis, remembered the benefaction done by Histiaeus the Milesian and the advice of the Mytilenian Coes and, after he had sent for them to go to Sardis, offered them a choice. Histiaeus indeed, seeing that he was tyrant of Miletus, requested in addition no tyranny, but asked for Myrcinus, the Edonians’ land, because he wanted to found a city in it. That one indeed chose that and Coes, inasmuch as he was no tyrant, but a commoner, asked to become tyrant of Mytilene.
So, when things had been brought to fulfillment for both, those turned their course after what they had chosen and Darius it happened, when he had seen for himself a matter like the following, conceived a desire to enjoin on Megabazus to take hold of the Paeonians and cause them to be drawn up from Europe to Asia: there was Pigres as well as Mastyes, Paeonian men, who, when Darius had gone across to Asia, themselves wished to be the Paeonians’ tyrants and came to Sardis at the same time as they were taking with them a tall and good-looking sister. Then, after they had been on guard for Darius’ sitting forth down in the suburb of the Lydians, they acted like this: having dressed their sister the best that they were able, for water they sent her who had a vessel on her head, by her arm drew behind a horse and was spinning flax. So, when the woman was going out nearby, a care for Darius it became—for neither Persian nor Lydian were the deeds being done by the woman nor characteristic of any persons from Asia—and when a care for him it had become, some of his lance-bearers he sent and bade be on guard about what use the woman would make of the horse. They indeed followed behind and she, when she had come to the river, watered the horse and, after she had performed the watering and the vessel with water had filled up for herself, the same way went out nearby, while she carried the water on her head, drew behind by her arm the horse and twisted the spindle.
Now, Darius, marvelling at what he had heard from his watchers and what he himself was seeing, bade bring her into his sight. And when she had been brought, there were present also her brothers and they held a watch of that in no way far off. So, when Darius was asking of what country she was, the young men asserted they were Paeonians and she was their sister. Then he replied, “And what human beings are the Paeonians and where on earth settled?”, and wishing what did they go to Sardis. Hence they pointed out to him that they had gone to give themselves to him, Paeonia was built as a city on the Strymon river, the Strymon was not far from the Hellespont and they were from the Teucrians from Troy colonists. They indeed gave those several accounts and he asked whether in fact all the women in that very place were thus industrious. So they asserted eagerly that that too was thus: for for that very reason then in fact the deed was done.
Thereupon Darius wrote a letter to Megabazus, whom he had left in Thrace as a general, and was giving the injunction that he should cause the Paeonians to stand up from customary abodes and bring to him both themselves and their offspring and wives. Immediately then a horseman ran with the message to the Hellespont and, after he had made a crossing, gave the paper to Megabazus. And when he had read and taken hold of guides, he advanced with an army to Paeonia.
Then the Paeonians, having learned by inquiry that the Persians were going against them, were gathered and advanced out with an army to the sea, because they thought that there the Persians would lay hands on in their invading. The Paeonians indeed were ready to fight off Megabazus’ army at their going in opposition and the Persians, having learned by inquiry that the Paeonians had been gathered together and were guarding the approach toward the sea, with guides turned their course to the upper way and, having escaped the notice of the Paeonians, they rushed into their cities, as they were empty of men, and inasmuch as they had rushed into them, easily seized them. So the Paeonians, when they had learned by inquiry their cities were being held, immediately were scattered in different directions and after themselves each group turned their way and gave themselves over to the Persians. Thus indeed among the Paeonians the Siriopaeonians and the Paeoplians as well as those up to the Prasiad lake, having stood up from customary abodes, were led to Asia.
But those round the Pangaean mountain and the Prasiad lake itself were not worsted to begin with by Megabazus. And he tried in fact to capture completely those settled down on the lake this way: planks tied on high piles stand in the middle of the lake with a narrow way in by one bridge, and the piles standing under the planks at some time anciently all the fellow-citizens jointly set, but afterwards set them by making use of a law like this: they perform a conveyance from the mountain, whose name is Orbelus, and for each wife he who marries set three piles underneath and each brings home numerous wives. Now, they are settled in a manner like that, each having power over a hut on the piles, in which he dwells, and a door fixed below through the piles that leads down to the lake and their infant small children they bind with a cord on their foot, because they are afraid lest they roll down. And for their horses and their yoke-animals they furnish as fodder fish and the multitude of them is so great that, whenever one pushes back the door fixed below, one lets go down with a rope an empty basket into the lake and with a pause of no long a time draws it up full of fish. And of the fish are two kinds, which they call Paprakes and Tilones.
Of the Paeonians indeed those who had been worsted were led to Asia and Megabazus, when he had worsted the Paeonians, sent as messengers to Macedonia seven Persian men, who after him himself were the most esteemed in the camp. And those were sent to Amyntes to ask for earth and water for King Darius. Now, from the Prasiad lake it’s a very short way to Macedonia. For first next to the lake is the mine, from which later than that a talent of silver for Alexander each day came regularly, and after the mine for one walking over a mountain called Dysorum there’s to be in Macedonia.
Accordingly those Persians sent to Amyntes, when they had come, asked after they had gone to Amyntes’ sight for King Darius earth and water. Then he gave that and them to feasts called and, having prepared himself a magnificent dinner, he received the Persians kindly. So when they were done with dinner, while they were drinking on, the Persians said this: “Macedonian host, for us Persians is a law that, whenever we put forth for ourselves a great dinner, then both the concubines and the wedded women should be brought in as sitters by. You now, since you gave a reception eagerly and are providing a great feast as well as are offering King Darius earth and water, follow our law”. Thereupon said Amyntes, “O Persians, our law at any rate is not that, but for men to be separated from women; yet since you, being masters, request in addition that, that too will be present for you.” Having said so much, Amyntes sent for the women. And they, when on being called they had come, in a row opposite the Persians sat. Then the Persians, seeing for themselves women of good form, spoke before Amyntes and asserted for themselves that that which had been done was nothing wise; for it was better from the beginning for the women not to go than, when they had gone and were not seating themselves by, to sit opposite as pains for their eyes. And Amyntes, being compelled, bade them sit by and, the women obeying, immediately the Persians touched breasts, inasmuch as they were drinking wine excessively, and doubtless one even tried to give a kiss.
Amyntes indeed, seeing that, was still, even though he was bearing it ill, inasmuch as he was excessively afraid of the Persians, but Alexander, Amyntes’ son, being present and seeing that, seeing that he was young and without experience of evils, in no way any longer was able to exercise restraint and, since he was bearing it heavily, said to Amyntes this: “You, o father, yield to your age and go away and rest yourself and stop persevering in drinking and I, remaining on right here, will provide what’s suitable for the guests”. Thereupon since Amyntes understood that Alexander was to do newer deeds, he said, “O son, because you are burning up, I almost understand your speeches, that you are willing after you have sent me out to do something newer. Therefore I request of you to innovate nothing against those men, that you may not ruin us, but hold yourself up under the seeing of what is being done and concerning my going away I will obey you.”
Now, when Amyntes had requested that and was gone, Alexander said to the Persians, “Of those women, o guests, there is for you much ease of the having, even if you want to have intercourse with all or however so many of them. About that you yourselves will make an indication, but now, since almost by now the hour of bed goes forward for you and I see you are well off for strong drink, those women, if it is dear to you, let go away to wash themselves and, after they have washed themselves, receive back.” Having said that, he, since the Persians were agreeable, sent away the women, who went out to the women’s apartment, and Alexander himself, after he had dressed beardless men equal in number to the women with the clothing of the women and given daggers, led them by within and, leading those by, he said to the Persians this: “O Persians, you look like you are feasted with a perfect complete banquet. For all the other things that we had and in addition that it was possible to find out and furnish is present for you and in particular this greatest of all things, our mothers and sisters, we lavish on you, that you may learn that you are honored completely by us with the very things, of which you are worthy, and in addition also to the king who sent you announce back that a Greek man, Macedonians’ governor, received you well in respect to both table and bed.” Having said that, Alexander seated by a Persian man a Macedonian man, as a woman by his speech, and they, when the Persians tried to touch them, did them to death.
Those in fact were destroyed by that manner of death, both themselves and their train of servants: for indeed there followed them both coaches and servants and all their large equipage: all that indeed together with all those were made to disappear. Then afterwards, not much later, a great search for those men was made by the Persians and them Alexander restrained with wisdom by giving much money and his own sister, whose name was Gygaee, and Alexander restrained them by giving that to Boubares, a Persian man, the searchers for the perished’s general. Now, the way of death of those Persians, thus restrained, was kept silent.
Further, that those descended from Perdicces were Greeks, just according as they themselves say, I myself in fact know thus and, what’s more, in the later accounts will show forth that they are Greeks and in addition also those of the Greeks who manage the contest in Olympia came to know it is thus; for, when Alexander had chosen to contend and gone down for that very thing, those of the Greeks who would run in opposition tried to exclude him by asserting for themselves that the contest was not of barbarian contestants but of Greek. And Alexander when he had shown forth that he was an Argive, was judged to be Greek and, competing in a stade, he finished together with the first. Now, that somehow thus happened.
So Megabazus, leading the Paeonians, came to the Hellespont and thence, after he had been conveyed across, came to Sardis. And seeing that by then Histiaeus the Milesian was walling the land that from Darius he in fact had asked as a fee, a gift for guarding the pontoon, and, that place being by the river Strymon, whose name is Myrcinus, Megabazus, having learned what was being done by Histiaeus, as soon as he had gone to Sardis in his leading the Paeonians, said to Darius this: “O king, what kind of a thing did you do in granting a clever and wise Greek man to found himself a city in Thrace, where there is abundant forest for shipbuilding, many spars and silver mines and a large Greek crowd is settled round and a large barbarian, who, having taken hold for themselves on a leader, will do that whatever that one commands both day and night. You now stop that man’s doing that that you may not be gripped in a home war. So in a gentle manner send for and stop him and, whenever you take complete hold of him, bring about that he will no longer come to the Greeks”.
Saying that, Megabazus easily persuaded Darius on the ground that he well foresaw what was to happen. Then afterwards, having sent a messenger to Myrcinus, Darius said this: “Histiaeus, King Darius says this: I in thinking find to me and my affairs there is no man more well minded than you and that not by speeches but deeds I know by having learned. Therefore now, since I have in mind to work out great matters, come to me by all means, that I may communicate for myself with you.” Having put faith in those words and at the same time considering great to become the king’s advisor, Histiaeus came to Sardis. And on his coming, Darius said to him this: “Histiaeus, I sent for you for this reason: as soon as I had returned from the Scythians and you had come to be away from my eyes, I sought after no other thing yet so in a short space as to see you and for you to come into speeches with me, since I am knowledgeable that of all possessions the most honorable is an intelligent and well-minded friendly man, both of which in fact I know to your credit and am able to bear witness in respect to with regard to my affairs. Therefore now, because you acted well by coming, this to you I propose for myself: let Miletus be and the newly founded city in Thrace and you follow me and have the very things whichever I have, while you are my fellow at meals and fellow at counsels.”
Darius, having said that and having set up Artaphrenes, his brother by the same father, to be subordinate ruler of Sardis, drove away to Susa and at the same time brought with himself Histiaeus and he appointed Otanes to be general of the men by the sea, whose father Sisamnes, who had become one of the royal judges, King Cambyses, because in return for money he had judged an unjust judgement, cut the throat of and flayed all the human hide of. Then, having stripped off his skin, he cut thongs from it and stretched tight the chair, on which he sat and judged, and having performed a straining tight, Cambyses appointed to be judge in place of Sisamnes, whom he had killed and flayed, the son of Sisamnes, after he had enjoined on him to remember the chair, on which he sat down and judged.
Hence that Otanes, he who sat down on that chair, then having become successor to Megabazus in his generalship, took the Byzantians and the Calchedonians, took Antandrus the country in the land of the Troad, took Lamponium and, having taken hold of ships from the Lesbians, took Lemnos and Imbros, both still then being settled by Pelasgians.
The Lemnians indeed both fought well and in defending themselves in time were caused evil and over their survivors the Persians as subordinate ruler set Lycaretus, Maeandrius who had been king of Samos’ brother. That Lycaretus as ruler in Lemnos met his end and the cause of that’s this: all he tried to enslave and subject and some he accused of abandoning the host against the Scythians and some of harming Darius’ army when from the Scythians it was being conveyed away back.
Now, that one worked out that when he had become general and afterwards for not much time there was a cessation of evils and there began for the second time from Naxos and Miletus to come about for the Ionians evils. For on the one hand Naxos in happiness excelled the islands and on the other hand at the same time Miletus was itself in its own quite highest degree then flourishing and Ionia’s ornament, but previous to that for two generations of men had been sick in the highest degree with faction, until the Parians restored order to it; for those as restorers of order from all Greeks the Milesians chose.
And the Parians reconciled them this way; when the best of them had come to Miletus, because indeed they were seeing they were ruined in their houses, they asserted that they wanted to go out and through their country. So doing that and going out and through all Milesia, whenever they saw any field in the desolated country worked on well, they wrote down for themselves the name of the master of the field. Then having driven out and through the whole country and found those rare, as soon as they had gone down to the town, after they had brought about an assembly, they appointed those to govern the city, whose fields they had found well worked on—for they asserted that they thought that also for the people’s things they would quite so care just as for their own—and to the rest of the Milesians who previously were factious they gave orders to obey them.
Now, the Parians restored order to the Milesians thus and then from those cities this way began evils to come about for Ionia. From Naxos were banished men among the rich by the people and, having been banished, they came to Miletus. Of Miletus then in fact was guardian Aristagores, the son of Molpagores, who was the son-in-law and cousin of Histiaeus, the son of Lysagores, whom Darius was detaining in Susa. For Histiaeus was tyrant of Miletus and in fact during that time was in Susa, when the Naxians had gone, who were previously foreign friends of Histiaeus. Then the Naxians, having come to Miletus, asked Aristagores whether in any way to them he could furnish any power and they could go back down to their own land. So he considered that, if through him they went back down to the city, he would rule Naxos and, using as a pretext their foreign friendship with Histiaeus, this to them as a speech he brought forward: “I myself for you am not capable of furnishing such great power as to bring about a going back down, the Naxians who have the city being unwilling—for I have learned by inquiry that eight thousand shield are the Naxians’ and many large boats—but I will make contrivances in using every kind of eagerness. Now, I devise this way: Artaphernes is in fact my friend and Artaphernes for you is Hystaspes’ son and Darius the king’s brother and rules all those on the sea in Asia with many a host and many ships. Therefore, I think that man will do whatever we request.” Having heard that, the Naxians put forth to Aristagores to do as best he could and bade promise gifts and expense for the host with the intention that they themselves would pay, because they had many hopes that, whenever they appeared out in Naxos, the Naxians would do all of whatever they themselves bade and likewise also the rest of the islanders; for of those islands not even one yet was under Darius.
Then Aristagores, having come to Sardis, said to Artaphrenes that Naxos was an island in magnitude not large, but otherwise beautiful and good and near Ionia; moreover, there was within many kinds of wealth and slaves. “You therefore against that country drive an army and bring back down to it the exiles from it. And for you, if you do that, on the one hand is ready with me much money besides the expenses for the host—for that is just for us who bring you to furnish—and on the other hand islands for the king you will acquire in addition, Naxos itself and those that depend on that, Paros, Andros and all the others called Cyclades. Then, setting off thence, easily you will apply yourself to Euboea, a large and happy island, not smaller than Cyprus and very easy to be taken. Now, a hundred ships suffice to worst all those.” Then he replied to him with this: “You for the house of the king are proving a proposer of good things and in all that you are advising well, except the ships’ number. Now, instead of a hundred ships two hundred will be ready for you together with spring, but to that must also the king himself prove agreeable.”
Aristagores indeed, when he had heard that, was very joyful and went away to Miletus and Artaphrenes, when to him, after he had sent to Susa and communicated what was said by Aristagores, Darius himself also had proven agreeable, prepared himself two hundred triremes and a very large crowd of Persians and all the other allies and as general of those appointed Megabates, a Persian man of the Achaemenids, his own and Darius’ cousin, of whom Pausanies, the son of Cleombrotus, a Lacedemonian, if indeed the account is true at any rate, a time later than that betrothed to himself the daughter, because he had gotten hold of a desire to become tyrant of Greece. So having appointed Megabates general, Artaphrenes dispatched the army off to Aristagores.
Then Megabates, having taken over from Miletus Aristagores, the Ionian host and the Naxians, sailed ostensibly toward the Hellespont, but when he had come to be in Chios, he landed his ships at Caucasa, that thence with the north wind to Naxos he might cross over. And, because the Naxians had not to perish by that expedition, a matter like this happened to come about: while Megabates was going the round of the guards on the ships, on the Myndian ship in fact no one was on guard and he, considering it something awful, bade his lance-bearers to find out the ruler of that ship, whose name was Scylax, and bind that one and divide him through the oar-hole of the ship after that following fashion: they caused head to be outside and his body inside. So, after Scylax had been bound,someone announced out to Aristagores that his foreign friend, the Myndian, Megabates had bound and was maltreating. Then he went and begged the Persian, but obtaining nothing of what he asked for, he himself went and performed a release and Megabates, having learned by inquiry, considered it very awful and was angry with Aristagores. But he said, “But for you and those matters what is it? Did not Artaphrenes dispatch you off to obey me and sail wherever I bid? Why are you doing many things?” That said Aristagores and the other in wrath at that, when it had become night, sent to Naxos by boat men to point out to the Naxians all the matters that were on hand for them.
For the Naxians accordingly were not expecting at all absolutely that against them that expedition would set off. However, when they had learned by inquiry, immediately they brought for themselves the things from the fields into their wall and they prepared themselves on the ground that they would be besieged both foods and drinks and strengthened for themselves the wall. So those were preparing themselves on the ground that war would be on hand for them and the others, when they had caused to cross over from Chios their ships to Naxos, against people fenced in approached and conducted a siege four months. Then, when that money, with which the Persians had come, had been expended by them and by Aristagores himself had been used up in addition much and in short the seige needed more, thereupon having built walls for the exiles of the Naxians, they departed to the mainland and were faring badly.
So Aristagores was not able to bring to completion his promise to Artaphrenes and at the same time the expense of the host, as it was being asked for, was oppressing him and he was afraid because the army fared badly and he was fallen out with Megabates and thought the kingdom of Miletus would be taken away. Then being afraid of each of those things, he resolved on revolt; for it happened that also the one branded on the head had come from Susa from Histiaeus and was indicating that Aristagores should revolt from the king. For Histiaeus, wanting to indicate to Aristagores that he should revolt, was able in no other way to make an indication safely, inasmuch as the ways were guarded, and so he, having shaved thoroughly the most trusted of his slaves at his head, branded it and waited for his hairs to grow out and, as soon as they had grown out, he sent him away to Miletus after he had enjoined on him nothing else but, whenever he came to Miletus, to bid Aristagores to shave him at his hairs and make an inspection on his head. The brands were indicating, as has been said by me previously also, revolt. So that Histiaeus did, because he considered a great misfortune his detention in Susa. Hence, if a revolt was made, he had many hopes that he would be released to the sea, but if Miletus made no greater innovation, in no way he would come to it any longer he calculated.
Now, Histiaeus with that intention sent away the messenger and to Aristagores it happened in the same time all those events went together. Therefore he took counsel for himself with the men of his faction and brought out to light his opinion and what had come from Histiaeus. All the others indeed brought forth for themselves an opinion in accordance with the same thing, but Hecataeus the composer of accounts first would not allow war with the king of the Persians to be taken up and recounted all the nations that Darius ruled and his power, but when he could not produce persuasion, second he advised that they should bring about that they would be masters by ship of the sea. Now, in no other way he asserted in speaking that he observed that would be, because he knew the power of the Milesians was lacking in strength, but if the money of the shrine in Branchidae was taken down, which Croesus the Lydian had dedicated, he had many hopes they would be masters over the sea, and thus they themselves would be able to use the money and their enemies would not plunder it. And that money was great, as has been made clear by me in the first of my accounts. Indeed that opinion prevailed not, but it was decided notwithstanding to revolt and for one of them to sail to Myus to the camp that had gone from Naxos and was there and try to arrest the generals who sailed on the ships.
So, after Ietragores had been sent away for that very purpose and had arrested with treachery Oliatus, son of Ibanollis, a Mylasian, Histiaeus, son of Tymnes, a Termerian, Coes, son of Erxandrus, to whom Darius had presented Mytilene, Aristagores, son of Heracleides, a Cymian and numerous others, thus indeed out in the open Aristagores was in revolt and contriving everything against Darius. And first in speech he let go of the tyranny and brought about equality before the law for Miletus, that willingly the Milesians might revolt with him, and afterwards also in the rest of Ionia he brought about that same thing by driving out some of the tyrants, and some, those tyrants whom he had taken hold of from the ships that had joined in sailing to Naxos, then, because he wanted to perform for himself friendly acts for the cities, he was offering off to them by offering over one to one city, another to another, whence each was.