translated by Shlomo Felberbaum

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Installment 19

Darius asked that and among them thirty men undertook it, each wishing himself to do that. Then Darius restrained their disputing by bidding them to cast lots and, when they cast, from among all Bagaeus, the son of Artontes, obtained the task by lot. So Bagaeus, having obtained it by lot, acted like this: after he had many documents written that related to many matters, he impressed the signet-ring of Darius on them and afterwards he went with them to Sardis. Then, having come and gone to Oroetes’ sight, he opened up each one of the documents and gave them to the royal scribe to read—all the subordinate rulers have royal scribes—and by way of making trial of the lance-bearers Bagaeus gave the documents, on the chance that they should consent for him to a standing apart from Oroetes. So,since he saw that they were reverencing the documents greatly and what was said by the documents still more greatly, he gave them another, in which these words were: “O Persians, King Darius forbids you to be lance-bearers of Oroetes”. And, after they had heard that, they put aside their spears for him and when Bagaeus had seen they were persuaded of that by the document, then indeed he took courage and gave the last of the documents to the scribe, in which had been written “King Darius enjoins on the Persians in Sardis to kill Oroetes”. And when the lance-bearers had heard that, they drew their short swords and killed him forthwith. Thus indeed after Oroetes the Persian for Polycrates the Samian retributions came.

When Oroetes’ money had come and been conveyed up to Susa, it happened not a long time after that King Darius in hunting beasts leapt from a horse and was sprained in his foot. And it was sprained somehow rather violently; for his ankle-bone went out of its socket. Then, because he was accustomed even earlier to have those of the Egyptians who were thought to be first in the physician’s art round him, he made use of those. But they by twisting and forcing the foot worked a greater evil. Indeed for seven days and seven nights by the present evil Darius was held by insomnia and indeed on the eighth day to him, who was in a poor state, someone who in Sardis still earlier incidentally had heard of Democedes the Crotonian’s art announced it to Darius and he bade bring him the quickest way to him. So, when they had found him out, despised somewhere or other among Oroetes’ prisoners of war, they brought him, dragging fetters and clad in rags, into his midst.

Then, as he stood in his midst, Darius asked him whether he knew the art and he would not admit it, afraid lest by bringing himself out to light he be bereft absolutely of Greece. But he was clearly to Darius acting artfully, although he had the knowledge, and he bade those who had brought him to carry near whips and goads in their midst. So hence indeed then he brought to light and asserted that he had the knowledge not exactly; rather he had associated with a physician and had the art poorly. Then afterwards, when he had entrusted to him, by using Greek remedies and applying gentle ones after the violent, he caused him to obtain some sleep as his lot and in a short time produced his being healthy, although he expected no longer at all to be sound of foot. Darius after that indeed presented him with two pairs of golden fetters and he asked him whether he apportioned him twice as great an evil on purpose, because he had made him healthy. And Darius, taking pleasure in the saying, sent him away to his own wives. Then the eunuchs led him near and said to the wives that that man was he who had given back Darius his soul. Hence each of them dipped with a bowl into the chest of gold and presented Democedes with somewhat quite so lavish a present that the staters that fell from the bowls the household slave, whose name was Sciton, as he followed, was gathering up for himself and for him a large quantity of gold was collected.

That Democedes, having come from Croton the following way, associated with Polycrates: in Croton he was entangled with a father difficult in anger; when he could not bear him, he left him behind and was gone to Aegina. Then, after he had taken up his position in that place, the first year he excelled all the other physicians, although he was without implements and had none of all the instruments that are concerned with his art. And the second year the Aeginetians hired him at the public’s expense for a talent, the third year the Athenians for a hundred minae and the fourth year Polycrates for two talents. Thus he came to Samos and because of that man not least Crotonian physicians were of good repute.

Right then, since Democedes in Susa had utterly cured Darius, he had the largest house and had come to be at the same table as the king; in short, except for one thing, going away to the Greeks, all else was at hand for him. And on the one hand the Egyptian physicians, who previously had been curing the king, when they were to be fixed on a pole because they had been worsted by a Greek physician—those by begging the king he rescued and on the other hand an Elean prophet, who had attended on Polycrates and was despised among the prisoners of war, he rescued. Democedes then was the biggest deal at the king’s court.

So in a short time after that these other events happened to come about: for Atossa, Cyrus’ daughter and Darius’ wife, a growth grew on her breast and afterwards it broke out and spread farther. Indeed all the time that it was smaller, she then, hiding it and being ashamed, pointed it out to no one, but when she was in a bad state, she sent for Democedes and showed it to him. Then he asserted that he would make her healthy and made her swear that yea verily in return she would work out for him that service whichever he requested of her, and he said that he would not request any of all the things that are leading to shame.

When lo! after that by administering a cure he had rendered her healthy, then indeed, taught by Democedes, Atossa in her bed brought forward to Darius a speech like this: “O king, with so great a power you sit down idle, without attempting to acquire in addition any nation or power for the Persians. But it is reasonable for a man, both young and lord of much money, manifestly to show forth something, that the Persians too may utterly know that they are ruled by a man. Moreover to do that tends toward two ends, not only that the Persians may know that he who is chief of them is a man, but also that they may be worn out by war and not have leisure and plot against you. For now in fact you should show forth some deed, while you are young in age, as with the body’s increase the wits too increase and with its getting old they get old and are blunted completely in respect to all matters”. She indeed said that in consequence of a teaching and he replied with this: ”O woman, all the very deeds that I myself have in mind to do you have spoken; for I have taken counsel to join a bridge from this mainland to the other mainland and advance with an army against the Scythians and that in a short time will be coming to completion”. Atossa said this: “Look now, leave off going your first way against the Scythians, since they, whenever you want, will be yours, and for me advance you with an army against Greece. For I desire Lacaenian maidservants to become mine, since I have learned of them by inquiry through speech, as well as Argive, Attic and Corinthian. And you have the most suitable man of all men to show the details of Greece and lead the way, that one who utterly cured your foot”. Darius replied, “O woman, then since it seems good to you for us first to make a trial of Greece, it seems to me to be better first to send watchers from among the Persians together with that one, whom you have spoken of, to them, who, after they have learned and seen, will announce out the details of them to us and thereafter with thorough knowledge I will turn to them”. He said that and at the same time brought about word and deed.

For, as soon as day had shone forth, he called fifteen esteemed men of the Persians and enjoined on them to follow Democedes and go out through the places of Greece by the sea and that Democedes should not flee away from them, but they should lead him away back by all means. And having enjoined that on those, he next called Democedes himself and requested of him that, after he gave a relation of and displayed all Greece to the Persians, he should be present back and he bade him to take hold of and bring all his movables as gifts for his father and his brothers and asserted he would give him in exchange many times more other. Moreover besides he asserted he would contribute to the gifts a merchantman for him, after he had filled it with goods of all kinds, which would sail together with him. Although Darius indeed, as far as it seems to me, announced that for him out of no treacherous intention, yet Democedes in fear lest Darius were making thorough trial of him, not at all ran after and received all that was being offered, but he asserted he would leave behind his possessions in place, that on his having gone back he might have them; the merchantman however that Darius announced to him for a present to his brothers he asserted he was receiving. And Darius enjoined on that one too the same and dispatched them away to the sea.

So, after those men had gone down to Phoenicia and in Phoenicia to the city of Sidon, at once they filled two triremes and together with them a large round vessel too with all kinds of goods. And having prepared everything, they set sail to Greece and, touching at ports, they beheld and wrote down its places by the sea, until they beheld the greater number and most named and came to Tarentum in Italy. Then there from mildness to Democedes, Aristophilides, the Tarentians’ king, on the one hand detached the rudders of the Medic ships and on the other hand kept the Persians locked up, on the ground that forsooth they were watchers, and while those suffered that, Democedes came to Croton. And when that man had came by then to his country, Aristophilides freed the Persians and what he had taken over from their ships he gave back to them.

The Persians in their sailing thence and pursuing Democedes came to Croton and, when they had found him walking abroad, they laid hold of him. Then of the Crotonians some in utter dread of the Persian power were ready to let him go and others laid hold in turn and with their staffs struck the Persians as they put forward these words: “Crotonian men, see what you are doing! You are taking away a man who has become the king’s runaway. And how will to have done that insolent act satisfy King Darius? And how will what is being done be beautiful for you, if you take him from us? And against what city earlier than this will we advance with an army and what earlier will we try to sell as slaves?” Although they said that, they could not however persuade the Crotonians; rather, having been taken away from Democedes and having been taken from the round vessel that they were bringing with them at the same time, they set sail back off to Asia and no longer sought to come to and learn thoroughly of the farther part of Greece, since they were bereft of their leader. However Democedes enjoined so great an injunction on them as they were conducting themselves off: he bade them say to Darius that Democedes had had betrothed to him Milon’s daughter as a wife. For indeed the wrestler Milon’s name was prevalent at the king’s court. And because of that following reason Democedes seems to me to have spent a large sum of money and have hastened that marriage, that he might manifestly be in Darius’ eyes esteemed in his own country too.

Then having been conducted off from Croton, the Persians were cast ashore with their ships to Iepygia and there Gillus, a Tarentinian man, an exile, rescued them, who were slaves, and led them away to King Darius. And he in return for those was ready to offer that whatever he himself wanted. So Gillus chose a return from exile to Tarentum be made for him, after he had earlier related his misfortune and that he might not confound Greece, if on his account a large force sailed to Italy, he asserted that it sufficed for him for the Cnidians alone to be made those who returned him from exile, since he thought through those who were friendly to the Tarentinians quite most his return from exile would be. So Darius promised and brought to completion; for he sent a messenger to Cnidos and bade them bring back from exile Gillus to Tarentum and, although they were persuaded by Darius, the Cnidians could not however persuade the Tarentinians and were unable to apply violence. Now, that was done thus and those were the first Persians to come from Asia to Greece and those became watchers on account of a matter like this above.

Then after that King Darius took Samos, the first of all cities, Greek and barbarian, on account of a cause like this: when Cambyses, Cyrus’ son, was advancing with an army against Egypt, numerous others from among the Greeks came to Egypt, some, as is reasonable, for trade, some who advanced with the army and also some certain ones as beholders of the country itself, among whom was Syloson, Aiaces’ son, who was Polycrates’ brother and an exile from Samos. That Syloson a piece of good fortune like this befell: after he had taken hold of and thrown round himself a red mantle, he was in the public square in Memphis and on seeing him Darius, who was Cambyses’ lance-bearer and not yet of any great account, conceived a desire for the mantle and, when he had approached, offered to buy it. So Syloson, since he saw Darius was greatly desiring the mantle, with divine fortune said, “I am selling that for no sum of money, but am merely giving it, if in fact thus it must become yours by all means”. Having praised that, Darius took the outer garment. Indeed Syloson knew that was lost to him on account of simplicity.

Then after, as time went forward, Cambyses had died, the seven had stood up against the Magian and out of the seven Darius had gotten hold of the kingdom, Syloson learned by inquiry that the kingdom had devolved to that man, to whom once in Egypt he had given at his requesting the outer garment. So having gone up to Susa, he sat at the doorways of the king’s house and asserted he was Darius’ benefactor. The gatekeeper heard and announced that to the king and he marvelled and said to him, “And who among the Greeks is a benefactor, to whom I for my part have an obligation, although I have the rule recently? But either few or none of them yet have come up to us and I have no debt, to exaggerate, to a Greek man. However, nevertheless, lead him near within, that I may know wishing what he says that”. The gatekeeper lead Syloson near and, as he stood in their midst, the interpreters asked who he was and having done what he asserted he was a benefactor of the king. Therefore Syloson said everything that had happened concerning the mantle and that he himself was the giver. Darius thereupon replied, “O noblest of men, you are he who made me gifts, when I had no power yet, even though small, and accordingly my gratitude is at any rate similarly equal as if now I should take hold of something big from somewhere. In exchange for that I offer you abundant gold and silver, that never it may repent you, because you have treated well Darius, Hystaspes’ son”. Syloson thereupon said, “Me neither gold, o king, nor silver offer, but bring back to safety for me my fatherland, Samos, which now at my brother Polycrates’ death at Oroetes’ hand our slave has, and give that to me without killing and leading into captivity”.

Having heard that, Darius dispatched off host and a general, Otanes who had come to be among the seven men, and enjoined all that that Syloson had requested they should cause to be brought to completion for him. So Otanes went down to the sea and dispatched the host.

Now, of Samos Meandrius, Meandrius’ son, had the mastery, since he had taken hold of the rule entrusted to him by Polycrates. To him who wanted to become the most just of men it was not granted; for, when Polycrates’ death had been announced out to him, he acted like this: first he set up an altar to Zeus of Freedom and established as a border round it that precinct, which is now in the suburb and afterwards, when it had been done by him, he gathered together an assembly of all the townspeople and said this: “To me, as you too know, the scepter and all the power of Polycrates has been entrusted and it is possible for me now to rule you, but what I for my part rebuke my neighbor for, I myself will not do according to my ability; for neither Polycrates pleased me by being lord over men similar to himself nor any other who acts like that. Now, Polycrates fulfilled his portion, but I put the rule in your midst and proclaim equality before the law for you. However, I think just for so many privileges to become mine, namely, from Polycrates’ money as perquisites six talents’ becoming mine, and in addition to that a priesthood I choose for myself and those who are descended from me on each and every occasion of Zeus of Freedom, for whom I myself set up a shrine and confer freedom on you”. He indeed announced that for the Samians, but one of them stood up apart and said, “But you at any rate are not even worthy to rule us, since you have been born badly and are a plague, and instead see how you will give account of the money that you had in hand”.

He said that who was esteemed among the townspeople, whose name was Telesarchus. Then Meandrius grasped with his mind that, if he would let go of the rule, some other would be set up as tyrant in his stead, and indeed had in mind in no way to let it go, but when he had gone back to the acropolis and sent for each one with the intention that indeed he would give account of the money, he arrested and bound them up. They indeed were bound up and after that illness befell Meandrius. So expecting he would die, his brother, whose name was Lycaretus, that more easily he might get complete hold of the affairs in Samos, killed all the bound; for not indeed, as they seemed, did they want to be free.

Therefore, when the Persians had come to Samos and were bringing Syloson back from exile, both no one raised their hands against them and under truce the men of Meandrius’ faction and Meandrius himself asserted they were ready to go out of the island. And after Otanes had given consent on those conditions and poured libations to ratify, those of the Persians worth most had seats placed over against the acropolis and sat down.

Meandrius the tyrant’s was a somewhat crazy brother, whose name was Charileos. That man made some error or other and was bound up in a dungeon and indeed then, having overheard what was being done and leaned through the dungeon, when he had seen the Persians were sitting down peaceably, he shouted and asserted by speaking that he wished to come to speeches with Meandrius. Then Meandrius, having overheard, bade men free him and lead him to himself. And as soon as he had been led, hurling abuse and representing him as bad, he tried to produce a conviction to attack the Persians by speaking like this: “Although me, o worst of men, who am your own brother and have done no injustice worthy of bonds, you bound and thought worthy of a dungeon, yet, when you see the Persians trying to banish and make you homeless, you dare not punish them, albeit they are thus indeed somewhat easy to be worsted? Well if, mind you, you are in utter dread of them, give me the auxiliaries and I shall take vengeance on them for their coming hither; moreover, I am ready to send you yourself from the island”.

Charileos said that and Meandrius took up the speech not because, as I for my part think, he had come to that degree of senselessness as to think his own power would survive the king’s, but more because he begrudged Syloson that he was to take back untoilsomely the city unharmed. Accordingly, by rousing the Persians to anger he wished to make the Samian affairs as without strength as possible and thus hand it over, since he had good full knowledge that the Persians, if they suffered evilly, were to be embittered against the Samians and he knew there was a safe way of slipping off the island for himself then whenever he himself wanted, as a hidden trench had been made by him that led from the acropolis to the sea. Indeed Meandrius himself sailed away from Samos and Charileos and, having armed all the auxiliaries and spread open the gates, he sent them out against the Persians who both expected nothing like that and thought of course everything was in agreement. Then the auxiliaries made an attack and those of the Persians who rode in two-man chariots and were of most account they killed. Those in fact did that and all the rest of the Persian host came on to the rescue; so the auxiliaries were oppressed and got cooped up back in the acropolis.

Then, when Otanes the general had seen the Persians had suffered with great suffering, regarding the injunctions that Darius while he dispatched him off enjoined on him, to neither kill nor sell into slavery anyone and to give back to Syloson the island without its suffering evils, remembering, he forgot those injunctions and he announced to the host everyone whom they took hold of, both man and child alike, they should kill. Thereupon some of the host began to besiege the acropolis and some to kill everyone that came to be in the way, alike in a shrine and out of a shrine.

So Meandrius ran away from Samos and sailed off to Lacedaemon; then, after he had come to it and brought up that, with which he went out, he acted like this: whenever he put forth silver and gold drinking vessels, his servants scoured them out and he, during that time being engaged in speeches with Cleomenes, the son of Anaxandrides, who was king of Sparta, brought him forth to his house and, whenever Cleomenes saw the drinking vessels, he marvelled and was astonished and the other bade him bring away for himself all of them that he wanted. And when Meandrius had said that not only twice but also thrice, Cleomenes proved the most just of men, who thought just not to take hold of what was being offered and, after he had learned that by making offers to others of the townspeople he would find succour, he walked to the ephors and asserted it was better for Sparta for the Samian stranger to depart from the Peloponnesus, that he might not convince either him or any other of the Spartiates to prove bad.

So they listened to him and heralded the departure of Meandrius. And the Persians made round-ups in Samos and handed over to Syloson a land bereft of men. However, at a later time the general Otanes joined in making settlements on it because of a vision in a dream and an illness that befell him so as to be ill in his pudenda.

Then, when the naval army was gone against Samos, the Babylonians, very well prepared, revolted; for in all that time and disturbance, in which the Magian was ruler and the seven had stood up against him, they prepared themselves for the siege and somehow in doing that escaped notice. And when they had revolted out in the open, they acted like this: having taken out their mothers, each man took out for himself in addition one woman that he wanted from his house and, after he had brought together quite all the remaining women, he strangled them; for each took out for himself the one as a foodmaker, but they strangled them, that they might not use up their food.

So Darius, having learned of that by inquiry and collected all his force, advanced with an army against them and, after he had driven against Babylon, he besieged them, who thought nothing of the siege. For the Babylonians walked up to the battlements of the wall and they insultingly danced before and insultingly joked about Darius and his host, and one of them said this word: “Why sit you, o Persians, there and depart not? For you will take hold of us, when mules bring forth”; one of the Babylonians said that, since he expected that a mule would bring forth not at all. Then seven months and a year having gone by by then, Darius was vexed as well as the whole host, since it was not able to take hold of the Babylonians. And yet Darius had perrformed all pieces of wisdom and all contrivances on them and not even thus could he take hold of them, although he had made attempts with other pieces of wisdom and in particular had made an attempt also with that, with which Cyrus had taken hold of them. But, since the Babylonians were terribly on their guards, he was in fact not capable of taking hold of them.

Then the twentieth month for Zopyrus, the son of that Megabyxus, who had come to be of the seven men that had taken the Magian down, for that Megabyxus’ son, Zopyrus, came about this portent: one of his food-carrying mules brought forth. So after it had been announced out to him and out of disbelief Zopyrus himself had gotten a look at the newborn, he forbade those who had seen to point out to anyone what had happened and took counsel. And to him in view of the Babylonian’s sayings, who at the beginning had asserted that, right whenever mules brought forth, then the wall would be taken, in view of that assertion to Zopyrus Babylon seemed to be capturable by then, as with a god’s aid that man had spoken and the mule had brought forth for him.

Then since it seemed to him to be fated by then for Babylon to be taken, he went forward to Darius and inquired away whether he considered worth very much to take hold of Babylon. And having learned by inquiry that he estimated it of much value, he took another counsel how he himself would be the one who took hold of it and the deed would be his, as very much among the Persians benefactions are honored to the farther degree of greatness. Now, he could not consider he was capable of causing it to be in his power by another deed but only if he mutilated himself and deserted to them. Thereupon considering it as a light thing he mutilated himself with an uncurable mutilation; for having cut off his nose and ears, shaved his hair all round evilly and whipped himself, he went to Darius.

So Darius bore very heavily seeing the most esteemed man mutilated and, having leapt from his chair, let out a shout and asked him who was his mutilator and because he had done what. And he said, “That is no man except you, whose power is so great as to dispose me indeed this way and no one of men of other kinds, o king, has done this, but I myself to myself, since I considered something terrible for the Assyrians to laugh at the Persians”. And he replied, “O cruelest of men, you put for yourself on the most shameful deed the most beautiful name, since you asserted on account of the besieged you disposed yourself incurably. Why, o foolish one, because you have been mutilated, will the enemies stand aside more quickly? How did you not sail out of your senses by destroying yourself?“ And he said, “If in fact I had put over to you what I was to do, you would not have overlooked me, but as it is I cast on myself and did it. Hence by now, if there is no need of your things, we take Babylon. For I, as I am, will desert to the wall and assert to them that I have suffered this at your hand. And I think, if I persuade them that is thus, I will obtain a host. You then from that day, from whichever I go to the wall, to a tenth day of that host of yours, of whom there will be no care, if it is destroyed, station a thousand by the so-called gates of Semiramis, afterward in turn from the tenth to the seventh station me two thousand others by the so-called gates of the Ninians and from the seventh leave twenty days wholly and thereupon sit down four thousand others, after you have led them by the so-called gates of the Chaldeans. Moreover let neither the earlier have anything of what will ward off nor the latter, except short swords; that however let them have. Then after the twentieth day straightway bid the rest of the host to attack all round, round the wall, and station me Persians by the so-called Belian and Cissian gates; for, as I think, after I have showed forth great deeds, the Babylonians will entrust all else to me and, in particular, the gates’ hooks and thereafter for me and the Persians it will be a care what we must do”.

Having enjoined that, he went to the gates and kept turning round as if forsooth truly a deserter. Then, when those stationed at that time saw, they ran down, down from the towers, and opening the other gate slightly a little, they asked who he was and wanting what he was present. So he publicly said to them that he was Zopyrus and was deserting to them. The gatekeepers indeed led him, when he had heard that, to the commonwealth of the Babylonians and he took up a position before them and lamented by asserting that he had suffered at Darius’ hands what he had suffered at his own and that he had suffered that because he had advised him to stand the host up and away, since indeed there appeared no way of making a capture. “Now in short”, he asserted by speaking, “I to you, o Babylonians, am present the greatest good and to Darius and his host the greatest evil; for indeed he will not go unpunished for mutilating this way me at any rate. I know all the goings out and through of his counsels”. Like that he spoke.

Now, the Babylonians, seeing the most esteemed man among the Persians, bereft of nose and ears, was confounded with whips and blood, completely supposed he gave true accounts and was present an ally to them and they were ready to entrust him with what he asked for from them; so he asked for a host. And when he had taken over that from them, he did the very deeds that he had covenanted with Darius; for having led out the tenth day the host of the Babylonians and encircled the first thousand that he had enjoined Darius to station, he killed those completely. Hence after the Babylonians had learned that he was putting forward deeds of his similar to his words, they were certainly very glad and were ready to perform quite every service. So he, having left off the covenanted days again, made a selection among the Babylonians and killed the two thousand of Darius’ soldiers and all the Babylonians, having seen that deed too, had Zopyrus in their mouths and were offering praise. Finally he, again having left off the covenanted days, performed their leading out to the forementioned place and encircled and killed the four thousand. And when he had worked out that too, Zopyrus was quite all among the Babylonians and that man was shown forth by them as army-commander and guardian of the wall.

But when Darius was attacking in accordance with what had been covenanted all round the wall, then indeed Zopyrus brought out to light all his treachery. For the Babylonians went up to the wall and defended themselves against Darius’ host as it attacked, while Zopyrus spread open the so-called Cissian and Belian gates and let the Persians go to the wall. Then of the Babylonians those who saw what had been done fled to Belian Zeus’ shrine and who saw not remained each at his station right until those too had learned that they had been given over.

Now, Babylon thus was taken for the second time and when Darius had gotten mastery over the Babylonians, on the one hand he took down their wall all round and drew away all the gates, since having taken Babylon the earlier time, Cyrus did neither of those deeds, and on the other hand Darius impaled the heads of the men to the number of approximately three thousand and gave away to the remaining Babylonians the city to be settled in. And how the Babylonians would have women, that for them a generation might arise, Darius looked to and did this (for their own, as has been made clear at the beginning too, the Babylonians strangled, since they were looking to their food): he imposed on the nations settled round to settle women down in Babylon and imposed on each group so and so many women so that the sum of five myriads of the women came together. So from those women the present Babylonians have been descended.

Hence none of the Persians excelled Zopyrus in benefaction with Darius as judge, of neither those born after nor those before, except Cyrus alone; for none of the Persians thought worthy yet to compare himself to that man. And often it is said Darius showed forth this opinion, that he would want Zopyrus free of suffering from his uncomeliness rather than twenty Babylons to accrue to the existing. So he honored him greatly, as in fact every year he offered him those gifts that are most honored among the Persians, granted him to draw revenue from Babylon free of tax during his life and gave in addition many other gifts. Now, of that Zopyrus was born Megabyxus, who was general in Egypt against the Athenians and their allies and of that Megabyxus was born Zopyrus, who deserted to Athens from the Persians.

end of Book 3

(to be continued)

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